Advertisement

Effects of Strain Energy Adjustment: A Case Study of Rock Failure Modes during Deep Tunnel Excavation with Different Methods

  • Liang-Tao Xie
  • Peng Yan
  • Wen-Bo Lu
  • Ming Chen
  • Gao-Hui Wang
Tunnel Engineering
  • 73 Downloads

Abstract

The strain energy adjustment processes and rock failure modes corresponding to different excavation methods, such as Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) or blasting, are quite different during construction of deep tunnel. Based on the diversion tunnel excavation of Jin-Ping II hydropower station (JPII) in southwestern China, the distribution characteristics of damage zones and adjustment process of rock strain energy under different excavation methods are analyzed and discussed, and the occurrences of rock bursts in the diversion tunnels are also monitored and analyzed. Research reveals that, the adjustment process of rock strain energy and the distribution of damage zones are obviously different under different excavation methods, and the depth and distribution of damage zone are positively correlated with the accumulation depth of rock strain energy. For blasting excavation, due to the combined effects of blast loading and in situ stress transient unloading, the surrounding rock is damaged seriously. The accumulation depth of rock strain energy is significantly larger than that by TBM excavation, while the accumulation peak of rock strain energy is smaller. For TBM excavation, the strain energy releases smoothly and slowly, and much more strain energy is accumulated in the vicinity of excavation face. Under similar geological conditions in the JPII, the rock bursts of intensive and mediate grades can be more frequently observed after blasting for the impact of severe excavation disturbance, and the strain energy transient adjustment may be the main disturbance contributor. While during TBM excavation, due to the smooth adjustment process of rock strain energy, the disturbance to surrounding rock is limited, and the accumulation peak of rock strain energy is higher and closer to the excavation face, which may result in more spalling events or minor rock bursts.

Keywords

blasting excavation TBM excavation strain energy adjustment damage zone rock burst 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abuov, M. G., Aitaliev, S. M., Ermekov, T. M., Zhanbyrbaev, N. B., and Kayupov, M. A. (1988). “Studies of the effect of dynamic processes during explosive break-out upon the roof of mining excavations.” Journal of Mining Science, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 581–590, DOI: 10.1007/BF02498618.Google Scholar
  2. Barton, N. R. (2000). TBM tunnelling in jointed and faulted rock, CRC Press, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  3. Cai, M. (2008). “Influence of stress path on tunnel excavation response–Numerical tool selection and modeling strategy.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 618–628, DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2007.11.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai, M., Kaiser, P. K., and Martin, C. D. (2001). “Quantification of rock mass damage in underground excavations from microseismic event monitoring.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 38, No. 8, pp. 1135–1145, DOI: 10.1016/S1365-1609(01)00068-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cook, M. A., Cook, U. D., Clay, R. B., Keyes, R. T., and Udy, L. L. (1966). “Behavior of rock during blasting.” Transaction of Social Mining Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 17–25.Google Scholar
  6. Cundall, P., Carranza-Torres, C., and Hart, R. (2003). “A new constitutive model based on the Hoek-Brown criterion.” Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on FLAC and FLAC3D Numerical Modelling in Geomechanics, Sudbury, Canada, Balkema, Ed. Brummer et al, pp. 17–25.Google Scholar
  7. Diederichs, M. S. (2007). “The 2003 Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium: Mechanistic interpretation and practical application of damage and spalling prediction criteria for deep tunnelling.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 1082–1116, DOI: 10.1139/T07-033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fan, Y., Lu, W. B., Yan, P., Chen, M., and Zhang, Y. Z. (2015). “Transient characters of energy changes induced by blasting excavation of deep-buried tunnels.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 49, pp. 9–17, DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2015.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feng, X. T., Chen, B. R., Ming, H. J., Wu, S. Y., Xiao, Y. X., Feng, G. L., Zhou, H., and Qiu, S. L. (2012). “Evolution law and mechanism of rock bursts in deep tunnels: immediate rock burst.” Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 433–444. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Gong, Q. M., Yin, L. J., Wu, S. Y., Zhao, J., and Ting, Y. (2012). “Rock burst and slabbing failure and its influence on TBM excavation at headrace tunnels in Jinping II hydropower station.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 124, No. 1, pp. 98–108, DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.10.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoek, E., Carranza-Torres, C., and Corkum, B. (2002). “Hoek-Brown failure criterion-2002 edition.” Proceedings of NARMS-Tac, Vol. 1, pp. 267–273.Google Scholar
  12. Hua A. Z. (2003). “Energy analysis of surrounding rocks in underground engineering.” Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 17, pp. 3029–3034. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Hussain, M. A., Pu, S. L., and Underwood, J. (1974). “Strain energy release rate for a crack under combined mode I and mode II.” Proceedings of the 1973 National Symposium on Fracture Mechanics, Part II, ASTM International, pp.1–21.Google Scholar
  14. Hustrulid, W. A. (1999). Blasting principles for open pit mining: general design concepts, CRC Press, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  15. Innaurato, N., Oggeri, C., Oreste, P. P., and Vinai, R. (2007). “Experimental and numerical studies on rock breaking with TBM tools under high stress confinement.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 429–451, DOI: 10.1007/s00603-006-0109-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ji, F., Lu, J., Shi, Y., and Zhou, C. (2013). “Mechanical response of surrounding rock of tunnels constructed with the TBM and drillblasting method.” Natural Hazards, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 545–556, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-012-0500-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jia, P., Yang, T. H., and Yu, Q. L. (2012). “Mechanism of parallel fractures around deep underground excavations.” Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 61, pp. 57–65, DOI: 10.1016/j.tafmec.2012.08.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kontogianni, V. A. and Stiros, S. C. (2005). “Induced deformation during tunnel excavation: Evidence from geodetic monitoring.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 115–126, DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.10.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, L. and Fu, H. L. (2000). “Breaking mechanism of TBM rock and reshaping technology of knife ring.” Chinese Journal of Railway Society, Vol. 22, pp. 8–10. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Li, L. P., Li, S. C., Zhang, Q. S., Li, L. Y., and Liu, H. Q. (2008). “Analysis of dynamic response on blasting excavation of closespaced tunnel.” Chinese Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development, Vol. 25, No. 7, pp. 100–106. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Lindin, G. L. and Lobanova, T. V. (2013). “Energy sources of rockbursts.” Journal of Mining Science, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 36–43, DOI: 10.1134/S106273914901005X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Linkov, A. M. (1996). “Rockbursts and the instability of rock masses.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 33, No. 7, pp. 727–732, DOI: 10.1016/0148-9062(96)00021-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lu, W. B., Yang, J. H., Yan, P., Chen, M., Zhou, C. B., Luo, Y., and Jin, L. (2012). “Dynamic response of rock mass induced by the transient release of in-situ stress.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 9, pp. 129–141, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.05.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mandal, S. K. and Singh, M. M. (2009). “Evaluating extent and causes of overbreak in tunnels.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 22–36, DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2008.01.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shan, Z. G. and Yan, P. (2010). “Management of rock bursts during excavation of the deep tunnels in Jinping II Hydropower Station.” Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 353–363, DOI: 10.1007/s10064-010-0266-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shan, Z. G., Wu, X. M., Yan, P., Liu, N., Zhu, Y. S., and Zhu, H. C. (2010). “Behavior of Marble at Jinping II Project—Part 1: Intact Rock.” The 44th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th USCanada Rock Mechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association, pp. 72.Google Scholar
  27. Song, D., Wang, E., and Liu, J. (2012). “Relationship between EMR and dissipated energy of coal rock mass during cyclic loading process.” Safety Science, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 751–760, DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2011.08.039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tarkoy, P. J. (1995). “Comparing TBMs with drill + blast excavation.” Tunnels and Tunnelling International, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 41–44.Google Scholar
  29. Wang, J. A. and Park, H. D. (2001). “Comprehensive prediction of rockburst based on analysis of strain energy in rocks.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 49–57, DOI: 10.1016/S0886-7798(01)00030-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang, L., Lu, Z., and Gao, Q. (2012). “A numerical study of rock burst development and strain energy release.” International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 675–680, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmst.2012.08.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wawersik, W. R. and Fairhurst, C. (1970). “A study of brittle rock fracture in laboratory compression experiments.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 561–564, DOI: 10.1016/0148-9062(70)90007-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Whittaker, B. N., Singh, R. N., and Sun, G. (1992). Rock Fracture Mechanics: Principles, Design and Applications, Developments in Geotechnical Engineering, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  33. Xu, Z. M., Huang, R. Q., Fan, Z. G., and Wu, P. G. (2004). “Progress in research on rock burst hazard of long tunnel with large section.” Chinese Journal of Natural Disasters, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp.16–24. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  34. Yan, P., Lu, W. B., and Xu, H. T. (2007). “Primary study to damage mechanism of initial stress dynamic unloading when excavating under high geo-stress condition”, Chinese Journal of Explosion and Shock Waves, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 283–288. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. Yang, J. H., Lu, W. B., Chen, M., Yan, P., and Zhou, C. B. (2013). “Microseism induced by transient release of in situ stress during deep rock mass excavation by blasting.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 859–875, DOI: 10.1007/s00603-012-0308-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang, C. S., Chen, X., H., J., and Chu, W. (2010). “Study of mechanical behavior of deep-buried marble at Jinping II hydropower station.” Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 10, pp. 1999–2009. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. Zong, Q. and Meng, D. J. (2003). “Influence of different kinds of hole charging structure on explosion energy transmission.” Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 641–645. (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liang-Tao Xie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peng Yan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wen-Bo Lu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ming Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gao-Hui Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering ScienceWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Rock Mechanics in Hydraulic Structural Engineering Ministry of EducationWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations