All-optical pseudo noise sequence generator using a micro-ring resonator


A scheme for the generation of a pseudo noise (PN) sequence in the optical domain is proposed. The cascaded units of micro-ring resonator (MRR)-based D flip-flop are used to design the device. D flip-flops consist of a single MRR and share the same optical pump signal. Numerical analysis is performed, and simulated results are discussed. The proposed device can be used as a building block for optical computing and for creating an information processing system.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Haas S M, Shapiro J H. Capacity of wireless optical communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2003, 21 (8): 1346–1357

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Maia Borges R, Cerqueira Sodre Junior A. Reconfigurable optical-wireless communications for future generations. IEEE Latin America Transactions, 2015, 13(11): 3580–3584

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chaaban A, Morvan J M, Alouini M S. Free-space optical communications: capacity bounds, approximations, and a new sphere-packing perspective. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2016, 64(3): 1176–1191

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Chen R Y, Yang Z Y. CMOS transimpedance amplifier for gigabit-per-second optical wireless communications. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Wystems. II: Express Briefs, 2016, 63(5): 418–422

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Anguita J A, Djordjevic I B, Neifeld M A, Vasic B V. Shannon capacities and error-correction codes for optical atmospheric turbulent channels. Journal of Optical Networking, 2005, 4(9): 586–601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Niehusmann J, Vörckel A, Bolivar P H, Wahlbrink T, Henschel W, Kurz H. Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator. Optics Letters, 2004, 29(24): 2861–2863

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Bogaerts W, De Heyn P, Van Vaerenbergh T, De Vos K, Kumar Selvaraja S, Claes T, Dumon P, Bienstman P, Van Thourhout D, Baets R. Silicon microring resonators. Laser & Photonics Reviews, 2012, 6(1): 47–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Grover R, Absil P P, Van V, Hryniewicz J V, Little B E, King O, Calhoun L C, Johnson F G, Ho P T. Vertically coupled GaInAsP-InP microring resonators. Optics Letters, 2001, 26(8): 506–508

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ding Y, Ou H, Xu J, Xiong M, An Y, Hu H, Galili M, Riesgo A L, Seoane J, Yvind K, Oxenløwe L K, Zhang X, Huang D, Peucheret C. Linear all-optical signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators. Frontiers of Optoelectronics, 2016, 9(3): 362–376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Lipson M. Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon-challenges and opportunities. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2005, 23(12): 4222–4238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Xiao H, Li D, Liu Z, Han X, Chen W, Zhao T, Tian Y, Yang J. Experimental realization of a CMOS-compatible optical directed priority encoder using cascaded micro-ring resonators. Nanophotonics, 2018, 7(4): 727–733

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Ishida K. Synchronous pseudo-noise code sequence generation circuit. U.S. Patent 5519736, 1996

  13. 13.

    Xu Q, Lipson M. All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators. Optics Express, 2007, 15(3): 924–929

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lee J H, Song I, Park S R, Lee J. Rapid acquisition of PN sequences with a new decision logic. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2004, 53(1): 49–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Yang L, Guo C, Zhu W, Zhang L, Sun C. Demonstration of a directed optical comparator based on two cascaded microring resonators. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2015, 27(8): 809–812

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Zhao Y, Wang X, Gao D, Dong J, Zhang X. On-chip programmable pulse processor employing cascaded MZI-MRR structure. Frontiers of Optoelectronics, 2019, 12(2): 148–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Little B E, Chu S T, Pan W, Kokubun Y. Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2000, 12 (3): 323–325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Condo C, Gross W J. Pseudo-random Gaussian distribution through optimised LFSR permutations. Electronics Letters, 2015, 51(25): 2098–2100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Rabus D G. Realization of optical filters using ring resonators with integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers in GaInAsP/InP. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Berlin: Technische Universität Berlin, 2002

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Rakshit J K, Chattopadhyay T, Roy J N. Design of ring resonator based all-optical switch for logic and arithmetic operations-a theoretical study. Optik, 2013, 124(23): 6048–6057

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Bharti G K, Rakshit J K. Design and performance analysis of high speed optical binary code converter using micro-ring resonator. Fiber and Integrated Optics, 2018, 37(2): 103–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Houbavlis T, Zoiros K E, Kanellos G, Tsekrekos C. Performance analysis of ultrafast all-optical Boolean XOR gate using semiconductor optical amplifier-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Optics Communications, 2004, 232(1–6): 179–199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Rakshit J K, Roy J N. Silicon micro-ring resonator-based all-optical digital-to-analog converter. Photonic Network Communications, 2017, 34(1): 84–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rakshit J K, Roy J N. Design of all-optical universal shift register using nonlinear microring resonators. Journal of Computational Electronics, 2016, 15(4): 1450–1461

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Rakshit J K, Roy J N, Chattopadhyay T. A theoretical study of all-optical clocked D flip flop using single micro-ring resonator. Journal of Computational Electronics, 2014, 13(1): 278–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Asghari M, White I H, Penty R V. Wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 1997, 15(7): 1181–1190

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rajiv Kumar.

Additional information

Rajiv Kumar received his B.Tech degree from RGPV Bhopal, M.Tech degree from BIT Mesra and Ph.D. degree from NIT Jamshedpur, India. His research interest is optical wireless communication.

Ajay Kumar received his B.Tech degree from NIST, Berhampur, M.Tech and Ph.D. degrees from IIT (ISM) Dhanbad, India. His research interest is optical fiber communication and optical logic devices.

Poonam Singh is a professor at NIT Rourkela, India. She received her B.Tech degree from VSSUT, Burla, M.Tech degree from NIT Rourkela and Ph.D. degree from IIT Kharagpur, India. Her research interest is wireless communication. She is a senior member of IEEE.

Niranjan Kumar is a professor at NIT Jamshedpur, India. He received his B.Tech and M.Tech degrees from NIT Jamshedpur, India. He received his Ph.D. degree from IIT Roorkee, India. His research interest is communication and power system.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kumar, R., Kumar, A., Singh, P. et al. All-optical pseudo noise sequence generator using a micro-ring resonator. Front. Optoelectron. (2020).

Download citation


  • all-optical
  • D flip-flop
  • micro-ring resonator (MRR)
  • optical communication
  • pseudo noise (PN) sequence