In an effort to deepen our understanding of the development of one future-oriented psychological strength, hope, we examined how multiple sources of perceived social support (i.e., parent, teacher, classmate, friend) predicted hope and if these relations were moderated by age and gender in adolescents across a 1-year time span. Our sample was composed of adolescents in middle and high schools with ages ranging from 10 to 19 years old (Mage = 14.19, SD = 2.05) living in the United States (N = 991). The results showed that perceived social support from parents significantly predicted later hope in adolescents, and this relation was moderated by age but not gender. Specifically, the effect of perceived social support from parents on later hope declined as age increased. Perceived social support from teachers, classmates, and friends did not predict later hope, after controlling for baseline hope and race; neither age nor gender moderated the relation between these sources of social support and hope. These findings suggest that it is necessary to consider the developmental needs associated with ages within adolescence when promoting adolescents’ hope, especially in the family context. Future directions to extend the understanding of hope development and implications of the findings in mental health practices are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
The exception was a statistically significant association between retained status and grade, χ2 (9) = 261.30, p < .05, as 12th graders withdrew more than any other age group due to graduation.
Independent samples t-tests revealed that students who withdrew reported significantly lower levels of hope, t(989) = 2.29, p < .05, perceived social support from parents, t(977) = 3.68, p < .01, and teachers, t(986) = 5.06, p < .01, relative to those who were retained. Results from the logistic regression with attrition status as the outcome, suggested that being 12th graders, being of Hispanic decent, and perceiving lower levels of support from teacher were associated with an increased likelihood of withdrawing from the study, though the actual reason for attrition was unknown.
The development of the CHS was based on the Adult Hope Scale (AHS; Snyder et al. 1991). The CHS includes questions with the same semantic meaning as the AHS, though slight wording differences were used to ensure the language was developmentally appropriate. Also, the CHS is not a standardized measure and therefore does not have age norms. Although the current sample includes participants who are over the age of 16, it is considered appropriate to administer the CHS to these older adolescents, which also keep the measures simple and consistent in data collection. Similar justifications were also provided in previous studies (e.g., Suldo and Huebner 2004).
Tables reporting these results are submitted for peer review in supplemental tables. These results can be provided upon request.
Ahmed, W., Minnaert, A., van der Werf, G., & Kuyper, H. (2010). Perceived social support and early adolescents’ achievement: The mediational roles of motivational beliefs and emotions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 36–46.
Arslan, C. (2009). Anger, self-esteem, and perceived social support in adolescence. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 37, 555–564.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26.
Bateman, H. V. (2002). Sense of community in the school. Psychological Sense of Community, 161–179.
Blake, J., & Norton, C. L. (2014). Examining the relationship between hope and attachment: A meta-analysis. Psychology, 5, 556–565.
Bokhorst, C. L., Sumter, S. R., & Westenberg, P. M. (2010). Social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers in children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 syears: Who is perceived as most supportive? Social Development, 19, 417–426.
Brodsky, B. S., Malone, K. M., Ellis, S. P., Dulit, R. A., & Mann, J. J. (1997). Characteristics of borderline personality disorder associated with suicidal behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1715–1719.
Buckley, T. R., & Carter, R. T. (2005). Black adolescent girls: Do gender role and racial identity: Impact their self-esteem? Sex Roles, 53, 647–661.
Cartland, J., Ruch-Ross, H. S., & Henry, D. B. (2003). Feeling at home in one's school: A first look at a new measure. Adolescence, 38, 305–319.
Chang, E. C., & Banks, K. H. (2007). The color and texture of hope: Some preliminary findings and implications for hope theory and counseling among diverse racial/ethnic groups. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 94–103.
Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. C., & Davies, F. (2007). The impact of hope, self-esteem, and attributional style on adolescents’ school grades and emotional well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 1161–1178.
Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P., Kashdan, T. B., Heaven, P. C., & Barkus, E. (2015). Hope and emotional well-being: A six-year study to distinguish antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 520–532.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Colder, C. R., Chassin, L., Stice, E. M., & Curran, P. J. (1997). Alcohol expectancies as potential mediators of parent alcoholism effects on the development of adolescent heavy drinking. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7, 349–374.
Cowen, E. L. (1994). The enhancement of psychological wellness: Challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 149–179.
Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1, 16–29.
Day, R. D., & Padilla-Walker, L. M. (2009). Mother and father connectedness and involvement during early adolescence. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 900–904.
Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Importance ratings of socially supportive behaviors by children and adolescents. School Psychology Review, 32, 108–131.
Demaray, M. K., Malecki, C. K., Davidson, L. M., Hodgson, K. K., & Rebus, P. J. (2005). The relationship between social support and student adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 691–706.
Eccles, J. S., & Midgley, C. (1989). Stage-environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for young adolescents. Research on Motivation in Education, 3, 139–186.
Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Fillmore, M. T., Rush, C. R., & Hays, L. (2002). Acute effects of oral cocaine on inhibitory control of behavior in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 67, 157–167.
Freud, A. (1969). Adolescence as a developmental disturbance. In G. Caplan & S. Lebovici (Eds.), Adolescence: Psychosocial perspectives. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1992). Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Development, 63, 103–115.
Gerard, J. M., & Booth, M. Z. (2015). Family and school influences on adolescents' adjustment: The moderating role of youth hopefulness and aspirations for the future. Journal of Adolescence, 44, 1–16.
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408–420.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression‐Based Approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Helsen, M., Vollebergh, W., & Meeus, W. (2000). Social support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 319–335.
Hendricks-Ferguson, V. (2006). Relationships of age and gender to hope and spiritual well-being among adolescents with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 23, 189–199.
Hunter, F. T., & Youniss, J. (1982). Changes in functions of three relations during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 18, 806–811.
Ikiz, F. E., & Cakar, F. S. (2010). Perceived social support and self-esteem in adolescence. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 2338–2342.
Irwin, C. E., Burg, S. J., & Cart, C. U. (2002). America’s adolescents: Where have we been, where are we going? Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 91–121.
Jiang, X., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2013). Parent attachment and early adolescents’ life satisfaction: The mediating effect of hope. Psychology in the Schools, 50, 340–352.
Jiang, X., Lyons, M. D., & Huebner, E. S. (2016). An examination of the reciprocal relations between life satisfaction and social problem solving in early adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 53, 141–151.
Jiang, X., Otis, K., Weber, M., & Huebner, E. S. (2017). Hope and adolescent mental health. In M. W. Gallagher & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of hope (pp. 299–312). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lerner, R. M. (2005, September). Promoting positive youth development: Theoretical and empirical bases. Paper presented at the workshop on the science of adolescent health and development. Washington: National Research Council/Institute of Medicine.
Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., & Benson, J. B. (2011). Positive youth development: Research and applications for promoting thriving in adolescence. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 41, 1–17.
Levitt, M. J., Levitt, J., Bustos, G. L., Crooks, N. A., Santos, J. D., Telan, P., Hodgetts, J., & Milevsky, A. (2005). Patterns of social support in the middle childhood to early adolescent transition: Implications for adjustment. Social Development, 14, 398–420.
Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2002). Measuring perceived social support: Development of the child and adolescent social support scale (CASSS). Psychology in the Schools, 39, 1–18.
Malecki, C. K., & Elliott, S. N. (1999). Adolescents' ratings of perceived social support and its importance: Validation of the student social support scale. Psychology in the Schools, 36, 473–483.
Mandara, J., Gaylord-Harden, N. K., Richards, M. H., & Ragsdale, B. L. (2009). The effects of changes in racial identity and self-esteem on changes in African American adolescents’ mental health. Child Development, 80, 1660–1675.
Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205–220.
McElhaney, K. B., Allen, J. P., Stephenson, J. C., & Hare, A. L. (2009). Attachment and autonomy during adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed., pp. 358–403). Hoboken: Wiley.
McGirr, A., Paris, J., Lesage, A., Renaud, J., & Turecki, G. (2007). Risk factors for suicide completion in borderline personality disorder: a case-control study of cluster B comorbidity and impulsive aggression. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(5):721–729.
McNeely, C., & Falci, C. (2004). School connectedness and the transition into and out of health risk behavior among adolescents: A comparison of social belonging and teacher support. Journal of School Health, 74, 284–292.
Muthén, B., & Kaplan, D. (1985). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 171–189.
Muthén, B., & Kaplan, D. (1992). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non‐normal Likert variables: A note on the size of the model. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 45, 19–30.
Neblett, N. G., & Cortina, K. S. (2006). Adolescents’ thoughts about parents’ jobs and their importance for adolescents’ future orientation. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 795–811.
Nurmi, J. E. (1991). How do adolescents see their future? A review of the development of future orientation and planning. Developmental Review, 11, 1–59.
Otis, K. L., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2016). Origins of early adolescents’ hope: Personality, parental attachment, and stressful life events. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 31, 102–121.
Parker, P. D., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P., Marshall, S., Sahdra, B., & Kiuru, N. (2015). Hope, friends, and subjective well-being: A social network approach to peer group contextual effects. Child Development, 86, 642–650.
Reynolds, B., Richards, J. B., & de Wit, H. (2006). Acute-alcohol effects on the experiential discounting task (EDT) and a question-based measure of delay discounting. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 83, 194–202.
Rivas-Drake, D., Seaton, E. K., Markstrom, C., Quintana, S., Syed, M., Lee, R. M., et al. (2014). Ethnic and racial identity in adolescence: Implications for psychosocial, academic, and health outcomes. Child Development, 85, 40–57.
Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2008). Gender differences in the relationship between perceived social support and student adjustment during early adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 496–514.
Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 47–61.
Scholte, R. H. J., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2006). Peer relations in adolescence. In S. Jackson & L. Goossens (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent development (pp. 175–199). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Seligman, M. E. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. Handbook of Positive Psychology, 2, 3–12.
Sheldon, K. M., & King, L. (2001). Why positive psychology is necessary. American Psychologist, 56, 216–217.
Shorey, H. S., Snyder, C. R., Yang, X., & Lewin, M. R. (2003). The role of hope as a mediator in recollected parenting, adult attachment, and mental health. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22, 685–715.
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422–445.
Siddall, J., Huebner, E. S., & Jiang, X. (2013). A prospective study of differential sources of school-related social support and adolescent global life satisfaction. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, 107–114.
Snyder, C. R., Cheavens, J., & Sympson, S. C. (1997a). Hope: An individual motive for social commerce. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 107–118.
Snyder, C. R., Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Rapoff, M., Ware, L., Danovsky, M., Highberger, L., Ribinstein, H., & Stahl, K. J. (1997b). The development and validation of the Children’s Hope scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 399–421.
Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., & Sigmon, D. R. (2002). Hope theory. Handbook of Positive Psychology, 257–276.
Snyder, C. R., Lopez, S. J., Shorey, H. S., Rand, K. L., & Feldman, D. B. (2003). Hope theory, measurements, and applications to school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 122–139.
Steinberg, L., Graham, S., O’Brien, L., Woolard, J., Cauffman, E., & Banich, M. (2009). Age differences in future orientation and delay discounting. Child Development, 80, 28–44.
Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004). Does life satisfaction moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychopathological behavior during adolescence? School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 93–105.
Titsworth, S., McKenna, T. P., Mazer, J. P., & Quinlan, M. M. (2013). The bright side of emotion in the classroom: Do teachers' behaviors predict students' enjoyment, hope, and pride? Communication Education, 62, 191–209.
Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2006). An analysis of hope as a psychological strength. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 393–406.
Venning, A. J., Eliott, J., Kettler, L., & Wilson, A. (2009). Normative data for the Hope scale using Australian adolescents. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61, 100–106.
Vieno, A., Santinello, M., Pastore, M., & Perkins, D. D. (2007). Social support, sense of community in school, and self-efficacy as resources during early adolescence: An integrative model. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39, 177–190.
Wolters, C. A., Shirley, L. Y., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996). The relation between goal orientation and students' motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8, 211–238.
Zaff, J. F., Blount, R. L., Phillips, L., & Cohen, L. (2002). The role of ethnic identity and self-construal in coping among African American and Caucasian American seventh graders: An exploratory analysis of within-group variance. Adolescence, 37(148), 751–753.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 64–70.
Zuckerman, M., Ball, S., & Black, J. (1990). Influences of sensation seeking, gender, risk appraisal, and situational motivation on smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 209–220.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Archer, C.M., Jiang, X., Thurston, I.B. et al. The Differential Effects of Perceived Social Support on Adolescent Hope: Testing the Moderating Effects of Age and Gender. Child Ind Res 12, 2079–2094 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-019-9628-x
- Social support