Nationwide survey of therapy-related leukemia in childhood in Japan
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Therapy-related leukemia (t-leukemia) is associated with dismal prognosis. Published pediatric t-leukemia data are somewhat outdated and may not reflect recent advances in treatment. We report a retrospective nationwide survey of patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 in Japan. We identified 43 patients with pediatric t-leukemia; 33 had t-acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), eight had t-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t-ALL) and two had t-acute undifferentiated leukemia. Median age at onset and latency were 12 years and 3.8 years, respectively, consistent with previous reports. Of t-AML patients, 63.6% harbored topoisomerase II inhibitor (topo II)-related genetic abnormalities, while only 12.5% of t-ALL patients had such alterations, suggesting that topo II is not key to t-ALL leukemogenesis. The 7-year overall survival (OS) for all 43 patients was 39.2 ± 11.6%. The 5-year OS was 50 ± 20.4% in t-ALL, and 55.2 ± 11.0% in t-AML. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) was associated with superior 5-year OS (HCT(+) vs. HCT(−), 78.8 vs. 12.1%; p < 0.001), and 26 of 32 patients received allo-HCT in complete remission (CR). Only allo-HCT was associated with superior OS on multivariate analysis (HR 0.003, 95% CI 0.0001–0.098; p < 0.001). These findings suggest that allo-HCT in CR improves pediatric t-leukemia outcomes.
KeywordsTherapy-related leukemia Allo-HCT Topoisomerase II inhibitor KMT2A
The authors would like to thank all of the physicians in JSPHO who participated in this study.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. A summary of relevant information will be published with the manuscript.