Adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (ATL), a rare lymphoid malignancy with a high mortality rate, is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Due to its rarity and poor prognosis, ocular manifestations have yet to be well documented. The mechanisms that underlie ocular involvement in ATL patients, thus, remain poorly understood. We report the first successfully tracked case of ocular inflammation (i.e., uveitis) that developed simultaneously in conjunction with a rapid increase in ATL cells. Our findings for this case suggest that a rapid increase in ATL cells contributed to the disruption of the blood–ocular barrier, which may, thus, represent one mechanism underlying the induction of uveitis in ATL patients. Furthermore, with the development of novel therapies, the longer survival times of ATL patients have raised new issues, such as quality of vision in ATL patients. Hematologists should be aware that a rapid increase in the number of ATL cells may cause adult T-cell leukemia cell-induced uveitis.
Adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Blood–ocular barrier Uveitis Ocular inflammation
Compliance with ethical standards
This study complied with all of the principles of the most recent version of the Declaration of Helsinki (updated 2008). This study was conducted in line with the guidelines of the University of Tokyo and Tokyo Medical and Dental University Ethics Committee.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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