Adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (ATL), a rare lymphoid malignancy with a high mortality rate, is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Due to its rarity and poor prognosis, ocular manifestations have yet to be well documented. The mechanisms that underlie ocular involvement in ATL patients, thus, remain poorly understood. We report the first successfully tracked case of ocular inflammation (i.e., uveitis) that developed simultaneously in conjunction with a rapid increase in ATL cells. Our findings for this case suggest that a rapid increase in ATL cells contributed to the disruption of the blood–ocular barrier, which may, thus, represent one mechanism underlying the induction of uveitis in ATL patients. Furthermore, with the development of novel therapies, the longer survival times of ATL patients have raised new issues, such as quality of vision in ATL patients. Hematologists should be aware that a rapid increase in the number of ATL cells may cause adult T-cell leukemia cell-induced uveitis.
Adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Blood–ocular barrier Uveitis Ocular inflammation
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study complied with all of the principles of the most recent version of the Declaration of Helsinki (updated 2008). This study was conducted in line with the guidelines of the University of Tokyo and Tokyo Medical and Dental University Ethics Committee.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Tsukasaki K, Tobinai K. Clinical trials and treatment of ATL. Leuk Res Treat. 2012;2012:101754.Google Scholar
Liu MM, Furusato E, Cao X, Shen D, Chan CC. Ocular manifestations and pathology of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. Rare Tumors. 2010;2:e63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Sugita S, Ogawa M, Shimizu N, Morio T, Ohguro N, Nakai K, et al. Use of a comprehensive polymerase chain reaction system for diagnosis of ocular infectious diseases. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1761–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Mochizuki M, Sugita S, Kamoi K, Takase H. A new era of uveitis: impact of polymerase chain reaction in intraocular inflammatory diseases. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2017;61:1–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kitajima M, Korogi Y, Shigematsu Y, Liang L, Matsuoka M, Yamamoto T, et al. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology. Neuroradiology. 2002;44:559–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kamoi K, Nagata Y, Mochizuki M, Kobayashi D, Ohno N, Uchimaru K, et al. Formation of segmental rounded nodules during infiltration of adult T-cell leukemia cells into the ocular mucous membrane. Cornea. 2016;35:137–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar