Aplastic anemia (AA) and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) appear to be more prevalent in Asian countries including Korea. However, there are no exact data regarding its prevalence and frequency of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in Korea. Here, we present demographic data relating to AA/PRCA/MDS in Korea. Data were prepared by retrieval from a computerized database maintained by the National Health Insurance Service and Korea National Statistical Office. HCT data were collected from all HCT centers in Korea. The crude incidence rate of AA decreased from 2002 to 2010 and from 35 to 28 per million persons. Females were more affected by AA. The peak ages of onset of AA were in the seventh decade or older. The frequency of HCT for AA increased from 2002 to 2012 and from 69 to 131 per year. The crude incidence rates of MDS increased from 2002 to 2010, with 8–20 per million persons, and the frequency of HCT also increased, from 30 in 2002 to 132 in 2011. Even allowing for the possibility of overestimation, the crude incidence of AA is significantly higher in Korea than in western countries.
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