Total Hip Instability and the Spinopelvic Link

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Advances in technology, implant design, and surgical technique have lowered the dislocation rate in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Despite these advances, there remain a large number of instability episodes without a known etiology. Recent research suggests that the pelvic and lumbar spine interrelationship may be the explanation in prosthetic dislocations without a known cause. In this review, we describe the biomechanics, measurements, diagnoses, classification, management, and outcomes of total hip and revision total hip instability as it relates to spinopelvic alignment.

Recent Findings

As a person goes from standing to sitting, lumbar lordosis decreases, and the sacrum and entire pelvis tilts posteriorly with sacrum and coccyx rotating posterior-inferiorly, resulting in increased acetabular cup anteversion to accommodate femoral flexion. A fused spine and associated fixed acetabulum can result in abnormal pelvic femoral motion, impingement, and dislocation. Classifying the spinopelvic mechanics by sacral motion based on sitting and standing lateral radiographs provides an understanding of how the acetabulum behaves in space. This information helps appropriate cup positioning, reducing the risk of femoral side impingement and subsequent dislocation.

Summary

Surgical techniques to consider in the spinopelvic at-risk patient are positioning considerations in acetabular cup inclination and anteversion, high offset femoral stems, high offset acetabular liners, dual mobility articulations, and removal of impinging structures. Future research is needed to define the safest order of operation in concomitant hip and spine pathology, the effects on pelvic femoral biomechanics in spine surgery, and whether preoperative and intraoperative management strategies have a long-term beneficial effect on the dislocation rate.

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Lum, Z.C., Giordani, M. & Meehan, J.P. Total Hip Instability and the Spinopelvic Link. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 13, 425–434 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12178-020-09648-6

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Keywords

  • Spinopelvic motion
  • total hip arthroplasty instability
  • Ante-inclination
  • Sacro-acetabular angle
  • Spinopelvic mobility