Current trends in the diagnosis and management of syndesmotic injury
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Ideal management of the various presentations of syndesmotic injury remains controversial to this day. High quality evidentiary science on this topic is rare, and numerous existing studies continue to contradict one another. The primary reasons for these discrepancies are that previous studies have failed to (1) properly distinguish between isolated (non-fractured) and non-isolated injuries, (2) accurately define stable from unstable injuries, and (3) sufficiently differentiate between acute and chronic injuries. The purpose of this review is to summarize today’s body of literature regarding diagnosis and management of syndesmotic injury and discuss current trends and important future directions to optimize care of this very heterogeneous population.
KeywordsSyndesmosis Syndesmotic injury Ankle fracture High ankle sprain
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Matthew L. Vopat, Bryan G. Vopat, and Bart Lubberts declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Christopher W. DiGiovanni reports stock options with Wright Medical, Paragon 28, and CreOsso. He is a consultant for Wright Medical and Extremity Medical. He also reports royalties from Extremity Medical.
Human and animal rights and informed consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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