Achilles tendon injuries
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Purpose of review
The purpose of this study is to review the current literature of Achilles tendon injuries, specifically chronic tendinopathy and acute ruptures in regard to etiology, diagnosis, treatment options, and outcomes.
The incidence of Achilles tendon injuries is increasing, but the necessity for surgical intervention is decreasing due to improved conservative therapies, which may provide comparable outcomes without the implied surgical risk. If surgery is undertaken, no difference has been noted between open and minimally invasive techniques. The majority of patients are able to return to pre-injury level of activity, with the elite athlete as an unfortunate exception.
Achilles injuries can be devastating injuries, but if addressed early and appropriately, most patients have good self-reported long-term outcomes regardless of the treatment modality implemented. Further research is needed into the etiology, potential preventative measures, and longer-term outcomes of the different treatment options for wide range of Achilles pathology.
KeywordsChronic Achilles tendinopathy Acute Achilles rupture
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Anthony C. Egger and Mark J. Berkowitz declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and informed consent
This article does not contain any studies with animal subjects performed by any of the authors. With regard to the authors’ research cited in this paper, all procedures were followed in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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