Hypertension Management for the Prevention of Heart Failure: Best Strategies

  • Estefania Oliveros
  • Karolina Marinescu
  • Tisha Suboc
  • Kim A Williams
Heart Failure Prevention (S. Joseph, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Heart Failure Prevention


Purpose of Review

Heart failure (HF) is a growing epidemic that can be prevented. Since hypertension is one of the most prevalent medical conditions and leading causes of morbidity and mortality, aggressive treatment is essential, especially for those at risk for HF.

Recent Findings

There has been significant evidence developed over the past decade highlighting the necessity for rigid blood pressure management; with more recent guidelines addressing the importance of preventing hypertension from progressing to HF.


In this review, we discuss hypertension management strategies as a preventative tool for HF development.


Heart failure Hypertension Prevention Left ventricular hypertrophy 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Estefania Oliveros, Karolina Marinescu, Tisha Suboc, and Kim Williams declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    Go AS, Bauman MA, Coleman King SM, Fonarow GC, Lawrence W, Williams KA, et al. An effective approach to high blood pressure control: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hypertension. 2014;63(4):878–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dunlay SM, Weston SA, Jacobsen SJ, Roger VL. Risk factors for heart failure: a population-based case-control study. Am J Med. 2009;122(11):1023–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365(9455):217–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McKee PA, Castelli WP, McNamara PM, Kannel WB. The natural history of congestive heart failure: the Framingham study. N Engl J Med. 1971;285(26):1441–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kannel WB, Belanger AJ. Epidemiology of heart failure. Am Heart J. 1991;121(3 Pt 1):951–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ponikowski P, Anker SD, AlHabib KF, Cowie MR, Force TL, Hu S, et al. Heart failure: preventing disease and death worldwide. ESC Heart Fail. 2014;1(1):4–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bui AL, Horwich TB, Fonarow GC. Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011;8(1):30–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131(4):e29–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McMurray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD, Auricchio A, Bohm M, Dickstein K, et al. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: the task force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the heart failure association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2012;33(14):1787–847.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, Cushman M, Das SR, Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke Statistics-2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135(10):e146–603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heidenreich PA, Albert NM, Allen LA, Bluemke DA, Butler J, Fonarow GC, et al. Forecasting the impact of heart failure in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6(3):606–19.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jamerson K, Weber MA, Bakris GL, Dahlof B, Pitt B, Shi V, et al. Benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(23):2417–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Visser M, Langlois J, Guralnik JM, Cauley JA, Kronmal RA, Robbins J, et al. High body fatness, but not low fat-free mass, predicts disability in older men and women: the cardiovascular health study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(3):584–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt M, Schwartz AV, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(10):1059–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Butler J, Kalogeropoulos AP, Georgiopoulou VV, Bibbins-Domingo K, Najjar SS, Sutton-Tyrrell KC, et al. Systolic blood pressure and incident heart failure in the elderly. The cardiovascular health study and the health, ageing and body composition study. Heart. 2011;97(16):1304–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adams KF Jr, Fonarow GC, Emerman CL, LeJemtel TH, Costanzo MR, Abraham WT, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for heart failure in the United States: rationale, design, and preliminary observations from the first 100,000 cases in the acute decompensated heart failure National Registry (ADHERE). Am Heart J. 2005;149(2):209–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    de Simone G, Gottdiener JS, Chinali M, Maurer MS. Left ventricular mass predicts heart failure not related to previous myocardial infarction: the cardiovascular health study. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(6):741–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Redfield MM, Jacobsen SJ, Burnett JC Jr, Mahoney DW, Bailey KR, Rodeheffer RJ. Burden of systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction in the community: appreciating the scope of the heart failure epidemic. JAMA. 2003;289(2):194–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Santos AB, Gupta DK, Bello NA, Gori M, Claggett B, Fuchs FD, et al. Prehypertension is associated with abnormalities of cardiac structure and function in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Hypertens. 2016;29(5):568–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shah SJ, Aistrup GL, Gupta DK, O'Toole MJ, Nahhas AF, Schuster D, et al. Ultrastructural and cellular basis for the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics during the transition from hypertension to heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014;306(1):H88–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Izzo JL Jr, Gradman AH. Mechanisms and management of hypertensive heart disease: from left ventricular hypertrophy to heart failure. Med Clin North Am. 2004;88(5):1257–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Robinson KA, Li J, Mathison M, Redkar A, Cui J, Chronos NA, et al. Extracellular matrix scaffold for cardiac repair. Circulation. 2005;112(9 Suppl):I135–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yanagawa B, Rao V, Yau TM, Cusimano RJ. Potential myocardial regeneration with CorMatrix ECM: a case report. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;147(4):e41–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ahmed SH, Clark LL, Pennington WR, Webb CS, Bonnema DD, Leonardi AH, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: relationship between changes in proteolytic determinants of matrix composition and structural, functional, and clinical manifestations of hypertensive heart disease. Circulation. 2006;113(17):2089–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lopez B, Gonzalez A, Querejeta R, Larman M, Diez J. Alterations in the pattern of collagen deposition may contribute to the deterioration of systolic function in hypertensive patients with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(1):89–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wright JW, Mizutani S, Harding JW. Pathways involved in the transition from hypertension to hypertrophy to heart failure. Treatment strategies. Heart Fail Rev. 2008;13(3):367–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, et al. Seventh report of the joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    • Santos M, Shah AM. Alterations in cardiac structure and function in hypertension. Curr Hypertens rep. 2014;16(5):428. Overview of the association between hypertension with concomitant impairments in LV diastolic and systolic function. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE Jr, Drazner MH, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(16):e147–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hunt SA. American College of C, American Heart Association task force on practice G. ACC/AHA 2005 guideline update for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (writing committee to update the 2001 guidelines for the evaluation and Management of Heart Failure). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46(6):e1–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ammar KA, Jacobsen SJ, Mahoney DW, Kors JA, Redfield MM, Burnett JC Jr, et al. Prevalence and prognostic significance of heart failure stages: application of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association heart failure staging criteria in the community. Circulation. 2007;115(12):1563–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kalantar-Zadeh K, Block G, Horwich T, Fonarow GC. Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(8):1439–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    • Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE, Jr., Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: a Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2017. The 2017 guideline is a comprehensive guideline incorporating new information from studies regarding blood pressure (BP)-related risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and provide the reader with guidance for initiation of antihypertensive drug treatment, BP goals of treatment, strategies to improve hypertension treatment and control, and various other important issues. Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Group SR, Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, Snyder JK, Sink KM, et al. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2103–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Drazner MH. The progression of hypertensive heart disease. Circulation. 2011;123(3):327–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thomopoulos C, Parati G, Zanchetti A. Effects of blood pressure lowering on outcome incidence in hypertension: 7. Effects of more vs. less intensive blood pressure lowering and different achieved blood pressure levels - updated overview and meta-analyses of randomized trials. J Hypertens. 2016;34(4):613–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ettehad D, Emdin CA, Kiran A, Anderson SG, Callender T, Emberson J, et al. Blood pressure lowering for prevention of cardiovascular disease and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2016;387(10022):957–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vasan RS, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Larson MG, Kannel WB, D'Agostino RB, et al. Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: the Framingham heart study. JAMA. 2002;287(8):1003–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ekundayo OJ, Allman RM, Sanders PW, Aban I, Love TE, Arnett D, et al. Isolated systolic hypertension and incident heart failure in older adults: a propensity-matched study. Hypertension. 2009;53(3):458–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tsimploulis A, Sheriff HM, Lam PH, Dooley DJ, Anker MS, Papademetriou V, et al. Systolic-diastolic hypertension versus isolated systolic hypertension and incident heart failure in older adults: insights from the cardiovascular health study. Int J Cardiol. 2017;235:11–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Kannel WB, Ho KK. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure. JAMA. 1996;275(20):1557–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Spies C, Farzaneh-Far R, Na B, Kanaya A, Schiller NB, Whooley MA. Relation of obesity to heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular events in persons with stable coronary heart disease (from the heart and soul study). Am J Cardiol. 2009;104(7):883–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Alvarez GE, Beske SD, Ballard TP, Davy KP. Sympathetic neural activation in visceral obesity. Circulation. 2002;106(20):2533–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dusserre E, Moulin P, Vidal H. Differences in mRNA expression of the proteins secreted by the adipocytes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1500(1):88–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Butler J, Kalogeropoulos A, Georgiopoulou V, Belue R, Rodondi N, Garcia M, et al. Incident heart failure prediction in the elderly: the health ABC heart failure score. Circ Heart Fail. 2008;1(2):125–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bibbins-Domingo K, Pletcher MJ, Lin F, Vittinghoff E, Gardin JM, Arynchyn A, et al. Racial differences in incident heart failure among young adults. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(12):1179–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Levy D, Garrison RJ, Savage DD, Kannel WB, Castelli WP. Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham heart study. N Engl J Med. 1990;322(22):1561–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Desai CS, Ning H, Lloyd-Jones DM. Competing cardiovascular outcomes associated with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Heart. 2012;98(4):330–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Drazner MH, Dries DL, Peshock RM, Cooper RS, Klassen C, Kazi F, et al. Left ventricular hypertrophy is more prevalent in blacks than whites in the general population: the Dallas Heart Study. Hypertension. 2005;46(1):124–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Klingbeil AU, Schneider M, Martus P, Messerli FH, Schmieder RE. A meta-analysis of the effects of treatment on left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Am J Med. 2003;115(1):41–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Johnson CB, Beanlands RS, Yoshinaga K, Haddad H, Leech J, de Kemp R, et al. Acute and chronic effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and congestive heart failure. Can J Cardiol. 2008;24(9):697–704.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ledwidge M, Gallagher J, Conlon C, Tallon E, O’Connell E, Dawkins I, et al. Natriuretic peptide-based screening and collaborative care for heart failure: the STOP-HF randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;310(1):66–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Huelsmann M, Neuhold S, Resl M, Strunk G, Brath H, Francesconi C, et al. PONTIAC (NT-proBNP selected prevention of cardiac events in a population of diabetic patients without a history of cardiac disease): a prospective randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(15):1365–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Conlon CM, Dawkins I, O’Loughlin C, Gibson D, Kelleher CC, Ledwidge M, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement in primary care; magnitude of associations with cardiovascular risk factors and their therapies. Observations from the STOP-HF (St. Vincent’s Screening TO Prevent Heart Failure) study. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49(4):719–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Neeland IJ, Drazner MH, Berry JD, Ayers CR, deFilippi C, Seliger SL, et al. Biomarkers of chronic cardiac injury and hemodynamic stress identify a malignant phenotype of left ventricular hypertrophy in the general population. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(2):187–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dickinson BA, Semus HM, Montgomery RL, Stack C, Latimer PA, Lewton SM, et al. Plasma microRNAs serve as biomarkers of therapeutic efficacy and disease progression in hypertension-induced heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2013;15(6):650–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tang WH, Wang Z, Fan Y, Levison B, Hazen JE, Donahue LM, et al. Prognostic value of elevated levels of intestinal microbe-generated metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide in patients with heart failure: refining the gut hypothesis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(18):1908–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Levitan EB, Wolk A, Mittleman MA. Consistency with the DASH diet and incidence of heart failure. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(9):851–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    He FJ, Burnier M, Macgregor GA. Nutrition in cardiovascular disease: salt in hypertension and heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2011;32(24):3073–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brown IJ, Tzoulaki I, Candeias V, Elliott P. Salt intakes around the world: implications for public health. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38(3):791–813.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    He FJ, Burnier M, Macgregor GA. Nutrition in cardiovascular disease: salt in hypertension and heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2011;32(24):3073–80Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Denton D, Weisinger R, Mundy NI, Wickings EJ, Dixson A, Moisson P, et al. The effect of increased salt intake on blood pressure of chimpanzees. Nat Med. 1995;1(10):1009–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Eap CB, Bochud M, Elston RC, Bovet P, Maillard MP, Nussberger J, et al. CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genes influence blood pressure and response to treatment, and their effect is modified by salt. Hypertension. 2007;49(5):1007–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Miyaki K, Tohyama S, Murata M, Kikuchi H, Takei I, Watanabe K, et al. Salt intake affects the relation between hypertension and the T-786C polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18(12 Pt 1):1556–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gu D, Zhao Q, Chen J, Chen JC, Huang J, Bazzano LA, et al. Reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions: the GenSalt study. Hypertension. 2013;62(3):499–505.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    GenSalt Collaborative Research G. GenSalt: rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics of study participants. J Hum Hypertens. 2007;21(8):639–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yu HC, Burrell LM, Black MJ, Wu LL, Dilley RJ, Cooper ME, et al. Salt induces myocardial and renal fibrosis in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Circulation. 1998;98(23):2621–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gu JW, Anand V, Shek EW, Moore MC, Brady AL, Kelly WC, et al. Sodium induces hypertrophy of cultured myocardial myoblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypertension. 1998;31(5):1083–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lara K. Dietary patterns and incident heart failure in adults with no known coronary disease or heart failure: the REGARDS Cohort. AHA; 2017: Circulation; 2017. p. A15448.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mancini DM, Walter G, Reichek N, Lenkinski R, McCully KK, Mullen JL, et al. Contribution of skeletal muscle atrophy to exercise intolerance and altered muscle metabolism in heart failure. Circulation. 1992;85(4):1364–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chati Z, Zannad F, Jeandel C, Lherbier B, Escanye JM, Robert J, et al. Physical deconditioning may be a mechanism for the skeletal muscle energy phosphate metabolism abnormalities in chronic heart failure. Am Heart J. 1996;131(3):560–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meyer K, Schwaibold M, Westbrook S, Beneke R, Hajric R, Gornandt L, et al. Effects of short-term exercise training and activity restriction on functional capacity in patients with severe chronic congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1996;78(9):1017–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sinoway LI. Effect of conditioning and deconditioning stimuli on metabolically determined blood flow in humans and implications for congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1988;62(8):45E–8E.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Piepoli MF, Davos C, Francis DP, Coats AJ, ExTra MC. Exercise training meta-analysis of trials in patients with chronic heart failure (ExTraMATCH). BMJ. 2004;328(7433):189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lloyd-Williams F, Mair FS, Leitner M. Exercise training and heart failure: a systematic review of current evidence. Br J Gen Pract. 2002;52(474):47–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    McKelvie RS, Teo KK, McCartney N, Humen D, Montague T, Yusuf S. Effects of exercise training in patients with congestive heart failure: a critical review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;25(3):789–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Coats AJ, Adamopoulos S, Meyer TE, Conway J, Sleight P. Effects of physical training in chronic heart failure. Lancet. 1990;335(8681):63–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kiilavuori K, Toivonen L, Naveri H, Leinonen H. Reversal of autonomic derangements by physical training in chronic heart failure assessed by heart rate variability. Eur Heart J. 1995;16(4):490–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Keteyian SJ, Levine AB, Brawner CA, Kataoka T, Rogers FJ, Schairer JR, et al. Exercise training in patients with heart failure. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124(12):1051–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    O'Connor CM, Whellan DJ, Lee KL, Keteyian SJ, Cooper LS, Ellis SJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301(14):1439–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Beckett NS, Peters R, Fletcher AE, Staessen JA, Liu L, Dumitrascu D, et al. Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(18):1887–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Officers A. Coordinators for the ACRGTA, lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack T. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002;288(23):2981–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sciarretta S, Palano F, Tocci G, Baldini R, Volpe M. Antihypertensive treatment and development of heart failure in hypertension: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of studies in patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(5):384–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pitt B, Pfeffer MA, Assmann SF, Boineau R, Anand IS, Claggett B, et al. Spironolactone for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(15):1383–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Arwood MJ, Cavallari LH, Duarte JD. Pharmacogenomics of hypertension and heart disease. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015;17(9):586.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Relling MV, Klein TE. CPIC: clinical pharmacogenetics implementation consortium of the pharmacogenomics research network. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;89(3):464–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Johnson JA, Zineh I, Puckett BJ, McGorray SP, Yarandi HN, Pauly DF. Beta 1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and antihypertensive response to metoprolol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003;74(1):44–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Liu J, Liu ZQ, Yu BN, Xu FH, Mo W, Zhou G, et al. Beta1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms influence the response to metoprolol monotherapy in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;80(1):23–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Johnson JA, Liggett SB. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics of adrenergic receptor signaling: clinical implications and future directions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;89(3):366–78.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pacanowski MA, Gong Y, Cooper-Dehoff RM, Schork NJ, Shriver MD, Langaee TY, et al. Beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and beta-blocker treatment outcomes in hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;84(6):715–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Estefania Oliveros
    • 1
  • Karolina Marinescu
    • 1
  • Tisha Suboc
    • 1
  • Kim A Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of CardiologyRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations