Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Women
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Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Despite improvements in cardiovascular disease prevention efforts, there remain gaps in cardiovascular disease awareness among women, as well as age and racial disparities in ASCVD outcomes for women. Disparity also exists in the impact the traditional risk factors confer on ASCVD risk between women and men, with smoking and diabetes both resulting in stronger relative risks in women compared to men. Additionally there are risk factors that are unique to women (such as pregnancy-related factors) or that disproportionately affect women (such as auto-immune disease) where preventive efforts should be targeted. Risk assessment and management must also be sex-specific to effectively reduce cardiovascular disease and improve outcomes among women. Evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in women at higher ASCVD risk. However, some pause should be given before prescribing aspirin therapy in women without known ASCVD, with most evidence supporting the use of aspirin for women ≥65 years not at increased risk for bleeding. This review article will summarize (1) traditional and non-traditional assessments of ASCVD risk and (2) lifestyle and pharmacologic therapies for the primary prevention of ASCVD in women.
KeywordsCardiovascular disease Women Prevention Risk
The authors would like to thank Dr. Roger S. Blumenthal, Director of Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, for his review of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Rebeccah McKibben, Lena Mathews, Mahmoud Al Rifai, and Erin Michos have no relevant disclosures to report.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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