Advertisement

The X-Factor: Global Impact of Women in the Awareness and Management of Coronary Artery Disease

  • Divya GuptaEmail author
  • Sharonne N. Hayes
  • Sandra Lewis
  • Jennifer H. Mieres
  • Leslee Shaw
  • Nanette WengerEmail author
Women + Heart Disease (E Jackson, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Women and Heart Disease

Abstract

Heart disease is the #1 killer of women and a major contributor to morbidity and disability. This statement cannot be repeated enough and is often neglected. In 2008, there were 9,127,416 cardiovascular deaths in women worldwide, accounting for 33.2 % of all deaths in women. Coronary artery disease (CAD) differs in symptom presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes in women compared to men. We have made great strides in diagnosing and managing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. However, this progress continues to be overshadowed by the improvements made on the understanding and management of CVD in men.

Keywords

Coronary artery disease CAD Cardiovascular disease CVD Women in cardiology 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Divya Gupta, Jennifer Mieres, Leslee Shaw and Sharonne N. Hayes have no relevant disclosures to report. Nanette Wenger has received research grants and contracts and worked on a trial steering committee/trial data safety and monitoring board for Gilead Science, NHLBI, Pfizer, and Society for Women’s Health Research.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Coronary Heart Disease in Women. In: Eaker ED PB, Wenger NK, et al., editor Proceedings of an NIH Workshop. New York: Haymarket Doyma Inc, 1987.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Healy B. The Yentl syndrome. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1991;325:274–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Limacher MC, Zaher CA, Walsh MN, et al. The ACC professional life survey: career decisions of women and men in cardiology. A report of the Committee on Women in Cardiology. American College of Cardiology. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1998;32:827–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leslie LA, Swider SM. Changing factors and changing needs in women’s health care. The Nursing Clinics of North America. 1986;21:111–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Convention hwwineunseF. NCD Alliance—NCDs: a priority for women’s health and development; global status report on noncommunicable diseases, 2010. World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Capewell S, Graham H. Will cardiovascular disease prevention widen health inequalities? PLoS Medicine. 2010;7, e1000320.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shaw LJ, Butler J. Targeting priority populations to reduce disparities in cardiovascular care: health equity for all. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014;64:346–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta A, Wang Y, Spertus JA, et al. Trends in acute myocardial infarction in young patients and differences by sex and race, 2001 to 2010. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014;64:337–45.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    https://http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/heart/whhw.pdf. Women’s Heart Health Education Strategy Development Workshop 2001.
  12. 12.
    Tweet MS, Gulati R, Aase LA, Hayes SN. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a disease-specific, social networking community-initiated study. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2011;86:845–50.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gupta D, Wenger NK. Guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women: international challenges and opportunities. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. 2012;10:379–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Divya Gupta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sharonne N. Hayes
    • 2
  • Sandra Lewis
    • 3
  • Jennifer H. Mieres
    • 4
  • Leslee Shaw
    • 1
  • Nanette Wenger
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Northwest Cardiovascular Institute, LLPPortlandUSA
  4. 4.Hofstra North shore LIJ HempsteadUSA

Personalised recommendations