Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 517–525 | Cite as

Switchable Hydrophilicity Dispersive Solvent-Based Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Coupling to High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Amphenicols in Food Products

  • Weixia Li
  • Ning Chen
  • Zhongping Huang
  • Xiuqiong Zeng
  • Yan ZhuEmail author


Antibiotic residue has become a serious issue of food safety, due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and their toxic side effects. Therefore, regarding the need, we herein report a rapid, sensitive, and selective switchable hydrophilicity dispersive solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction (SHDS-LLME) method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detector for determining amphenicols in food products. In the off-line extraction procedure, the mixture of extraction solvent (butanol) and dispersive solvent (tetraethylenepentamine) was manually injected into the acidic aqueous sample solution. Specifically, after the fast neutralization reaction, the dispersive solvent was converted into water-soluble salt and phase separation was achieved. Under the optimal conditions, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.27–50.0 μg kg−1. The limit of detection for chloramphenicol (CAP) and thiamphenicol (TAP) were 0.03 and 0.08 μg kg−1, respectively. Recoveries for the spiked samples obtained were between 81.5 and 113.5% and the relative standard deviation was less than 8.6%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of amphenicols in four food products.


Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction Switchable hydrophilicity dispersive solvent Chloramphenicol Thiamphenicol 



We could like to thank the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Nos. LZ16B050001, LY15B050001) and National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 201405141).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Weixia Li declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ning Chen declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zhongping Huang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xiuqiong Zeng declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yan Zhu declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

12161_2018_1382_MOESM1_ESM.docx (192 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 192 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Xixi CampusZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.College of Chemical EngineeringZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina

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