Switchable Hydrophilicity Dispersive Solvent-Based Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Coupling to High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Amphenicols in Food Products
Antibiotic residue has become a serious issue of food safety, due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and their toxic side effects. Therefore, regarding the need, we herein report a rapid, sensitive, and selective switchable hydrophilicity dispersive solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction (SHDS-LLME) method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detector for determining amphenicols in food products. In the off-line extraction procedure, the mixture of extraction solvent (butanol) and dispersive solvent (tetraethylenepentamine) was manually injected into the acidic aqueous sample solution. Specifically, after the fast neutralization reaction, the dispersive solvent was converted into water-soluble salt and phase separation was achieved. Under the optimal conditions, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.27–50.0 μg kg−1. The limit of detection for chloramphenicol (CAP) and thiamphenicol (TAP) were 0.03 and 0.08 μg kg−1, respectively. Recoveries for the spiked samples obtained were between 81.5 and 113.5% and the relative standard deviation was less than 8.6%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of amphenicols in four food products.
KeywordsDispersive liquid-liquid microextraction Switchable hydrophilicity dispersive solvent Chloramphenicol Thiamphenicol
We could like to thank the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Nos. LZ16B050001, LY15B050001) and National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 201405141).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Weixia Li declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ning Chen declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zhongping Huang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xiuqiong Zeng declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yan Zhu declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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