Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 503–516 | Cite as

A Multiplex Immunochromatographic Assay Employing Colored Latex Beads for Simultaneously Quantitative Detection of Four Nitrofuran Metabolites in Animal-Derived Food

  • Jia Wang
  • Xiaoxi Chang
  • Xiaowei Zuo
  • Hebing Liu
  • Licai Ma
  • Hongjun LiEmail author
  • Xiaoqi TaoEmail author


A rapid and sensitive high-throughput latex bead immunochromatographic assay (LB-ICA) for simultaneously quantitative detection of four major nitrofuran metabolites, including semicarbazide (SEM), 1-aminohydantoin (AHD), 3-amino-5-methylmorpholino-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), and 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) in animal-derived food (chicken, fish, and shrimp) was developed. Four different coating antigens were separately immobilized on nitrocellulose (NC) membrane as capture reagents; red latex beads were sprayed as constant control line. Specific monoclonal antibodies labeled with blue- or red-colored latex bead reacted with analytes in standard or sample and flowed along the strip, exhibiting visible and colorful test lines after unbound antibodies coupled with corresponding antigens on four test lines. No mutual interference was found in the simultaneous detection of the four analytes even at concentrations (100 μg L−1) higher than their respective cutoff values. The limits of detection (LODs) for SEM, AHD, AMOZ, and AOZ were 0.02–0.1 μg kg−1 in chicken, 0.02–0.15 μg kg−1 in fish, and 0.03–0.12 μg kg−1 in shrimp, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 73.5 to 109.2% at fortified concentration of LOD, 2LOD, and 4LOD, with coefficient of variation < 15%. Analysis of field animal-derived food samples by LB-ICA was in accordance with that of LC-MS/MS. Therefore, this proposed multiplex LB-ICA was a promising method for on-site screening of multiple analytes in animal-derived food.

Graphical Abstract

A multiplex immunochromatographic assay for simultaneously quantitative detection of nitrofuran metabolites in animal meat was developed for the first time.

Latex beads with favorable properties achieved high sensitivity and color discrimination, which enhanced the user experience.


Nitrofuran metabolites Multiplex immunochromatographic assay Latex bead Quantitative detection Animal-derived food 


Funding Information

This paper received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31672605 and 31671787), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M590855), Chongqing Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology (Nos. cstc2017jcyjAX0313 and cstc2018jcyjAX0242), Chongqing Postdoctoral Science Foundation Special Funded Project (Xm2017074), Chongqing Herbivorous Livestock Industrial Technical System (Y201706), and Chongqing Graduate Research and Innovation Project (CYS18119).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Jia Wang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xiaoxi Chang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xiaowei Zuo declares that she has no conflict of interest. Hebing Liu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Licai Ma declares that he has no conflict of interest. Hongjun Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xiaoqi Tao declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable in this study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food ScienceSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Beijing WDWK Biotech Co., LtdBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary MedicineChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Special FoodsChongqingChina

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