Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 394–408 | Cite as

Rapid and Direct Microextraction of Pesticide Residues from Rice and Vegetable Samples by Supramolecular Solvent in Combination with Chemometrical Data Processing

  • Setare Gorji
  • Pourya BiparvaEmail author
  • Morteza Bahram
  • Ghorbanali Nematzadeh


In this work, a rapid, simple, and environmentally friendly method has been proposed for direct supramolecular microextraction of four organophosphate insecticides (ethion, phosalone, diazinon, chlorpyrifos) and an isothiazolidine acaricide (hexythiazox) in agricultural product samples prior to their determination by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy. These five target pesticides have been selected as models in combination with chemometrical optimization processing due to their high consumption in rice, cucumber, and tomato samples for pest control. Method is based on the extraction of pesticide residues from homogenized food sample in an aqueous media containing some tetrahydrofuran (THF) and decanoic acid (DeA). Effects of the experimental parameters, including THF volume, DeA content, salt concentration (as a measure of salting-out effect), and pH on extraction recoveries (ERs) and enrichment factors (EFs) were investigated and, then, the significant variables were optimized using central composite design (CCD) as chemometrical processing. At optimum conditions, this method has a linear response over the ranges of 0.10 to 1500 μg kg−1 for target analytes. Limits of detection (LOD) of this method were found to be in the range of 0.05 to 0.20 μg kg−1. Also, relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was in the range of 3.45 to 12.27% and the enrichment factors ranged from 102- to 178-fold. The method was applied successfully for analysis of the pesticides in agricultural product samples.

Graphical Abstract


Central composite design Direct supramolecular microextraction High-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy Pesticide residue Rice and vegetable samples 



The authors thank the Genetic and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari University of Agricultural, Iran for the support provided.


This work was supported by the Genetic and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan Foundation (Gabit-T-005).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Setare Gorji declares that she has no conflict of interest. Pourya Biparva declares that he has no conflict of interest. Morteza Bahram declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ghorbanali Nematzadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Publication has been approved by all individual participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Setare Gorji
    • 1
  • Pourya Biparva
    • 2
    Email author
  • Morteza Bahram
    • 1
  • Ghorbanali Nematzadeh
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.Departement of Basic SciencesSari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources UniversitySariIran
  3. 3.Genetic and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of TabarestanSari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesSariIran

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