Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 371–380 | Cite as

Quantitative Evaluation of Impact Damage to Apple by Hyperspectral Imaging and Mechanical Parameters

  • Duohua Xu
  • Huaiwen WangEmail author
  • Hongwei Ji
  • Xiaochuan Zhang
  • Camelia Cerbu
  • Eric Hu
  • Fuyuan Dong


Impact damage of apple was quantitatively investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology within the wavelength region of 900–1700 nm. The pressure-sensitive film technique was used to measure damaged area. Statistical analysis shows a significant linear correlation between absorbed energy and damaged area, contact load, and damaged area with coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.93 and 0.92. Then, the quantitative relationships between damaged area, absorbed energy, contact load, undamaged firmness, and spectral data were established by partial least square regression (PLS). The best prediction performance yielded by the PLS model measured by coefficient of determination (RP2) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) values were 0.8 and 116.73 mm2 for damaged area, 0.89 and 0.075 J for absorbed energy, 0.53 and 67.38 N for contact load, and 0.65 and 19.99 N for undamaged firmness, respectively. The overall results demonstrate the potential of HSI for rapid and nondestructive prediction of impact damage to apples.


Apple Hyperspectral imaging Impact damage Partial least square regression Mechanical parameters Quantitative evaluation 



The support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11572223, No. 11772225) is greatly acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Duohua Xu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Huaiwen Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Hongwei Ji declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xiaochuan Zhang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Camelia Cerbu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Eric Hu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Fuyuan Dong declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duohua Xu
    • 1
  • Huaiwen Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hongwei Ji
    • 1
  • Xiaochuan Zhang
    • 1
  • Camelia Cerbu
    • 2
  • Eric Hu
    • 3
  • Fuyuan Dong
    • 1
  1. 1.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration TechnologyTianjin University of CommerceTianjinChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringTransilvania University of BrasovBrasovRomania
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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