Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 347–354 | Cite as

Fast Analysis of Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity in Wines and Oenological Tannins Using a Flow Injection System with Tandem Diode Array and Electrochemical Detections

  • Arianna Ricci
  • Nemanja Teslic
  • Violeta-Ivanova Petropolus
  • Giuseppina Paola ParpinelloEmail author
  • Andrea Versari


An analytical method for simultaneous determination of total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) of wines (white and red wines) and oenological tannins, using a flow injection system with sequential diode array and electrochemical amperometry detectors (DAD-ECD), was proposed. The signal at 280 nm provided aggregate data for TPC. The anodic peak related to wine phenolic oxidation was scanned using pulsed integrated amperometry over the potential of 800 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, to obtain AA. Serial dilutions avoided the poisoning at the glassy carbon (GC) electrode and the linear response obtained with both detectors was compared with spectrophotometric assays commonly used in oenology laboratory. Intraday and interday analytical repetitions showed a good repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation RSD < 6% for both detectors), and the satisfactory relationship between the proposed coupled flow injection/DAD-ECD and the classic UV methods (R2TPC = 0.9967; R2DPPH = 0.9621) confirmed the efficacy of flow injection analysis with a coupled detection system, for the reliable quality control of wine and wine-related products.


Total polyphenol content Antioxidant activity Electrochemistry Flow injection DPPH• Method comparison 



Authors gratefully acknowledge the HTS Enologia and Laffort companies for having supplied food-grade tannin samples.


Authors A.R. and N.T. had PhD grants by the University of Bologna (Italy) and Penta EU program, respectively. Author V.I.P. was funded by the ERASMUS Mundus Action 2 Project while carrying out this experiment.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Arianna Ricci declares that she has no conflict of interest. Nemanja Teslic declares that he has no conflict of interest. Violeta-Ivanova Petropolus declares that she has no conflict of interest. Giuseppina Paola Parpinello declares that she has no conflict of interest. Andrea Versari declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

12161_2018_1366_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (231 kb)
ESM 1 Schematic representation of the flow injection system with tandem diode-array and electrochemical detections device used for analysis. (JPG 231 kb)
12161_2018_1366_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (114 kb)
ESM 2 Bland – Altman Plot describing correlation between UV/ 280 nm and flow injection /ECD data used for polyphenolic quantifications. (JPG 113 kb)


  1. Aid T, Kaljurand M, Vaher M (2015) Colorimetric determination of total phenolic contents in ionic liquid extracts by paper microzones and digital camera. Anal Methods 7:3193–3199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arce L, Tena MT, Rios A, Valcàrcel M (1998) Determination of trans-resveratrol and other polyphenols in wines by a continuous flow sample clean-up system followed by capillary electrophoresis separation. Anal Chim Acta 359:27–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnous A, Makris DP, Kefalas P (2002) Correlation of pigment and flavanol content with antioxidant properties in selected aged regional wines from Greece. J Food Compos Anal 15:655–665. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arteaga JF, Ruiz-Montoya M, Palma A, Alonso-Garrido G, Pintado S, Rodríguez-Mellado JM (2012) Comparison of the simple cyclic voltammetry (CV) and DPPH assays for the determination of antioxidant capacity of active principles. Molecules 17:5126–5138. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bland JM, Altman DG (1999) Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Stat Methods Med Res 8:135–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bobo-García G, Davidov-Pardo G, Arroqui C, Vírseda P, Marín-Arroyo MR, Navarro M (2014) Intra-laboratory validation of microplate methods for total phenolic content and antioxidant activity on polyphenolic extracts, and comparison with conventional spectrophotometric methods. J Sci Food Agric 95:204–209. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Sci Technol 28:25–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen W, Li W, Fu P, Yeh A (2011) Reactivity of DPPH in the oxidation of catechol and catechin. In J Chem Kinet 43:147–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Danilewicz JC (2013) Reactions involving iron in mediating catechol oxidation in model wine. Am J Enol Vitic 64:316–324. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Danilewicz JC (2015) The Folin-Ciocalteu, FRAP, and DPPH• assays for measuring polyphenol concentration in white wine. Am J Enol Vitic 66:463–470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dicu T, Postescu ID, Tatomir C, Tămaş M, Dinu A, Cosma C (2010) A novel method to calculate the antioxidant parameters of the redox reaction between polyphenolic compounds and the stable DPPH radical. Ital J Food Sci 22:330–336Google Scholar
  12. Foti M, Ruberto G (2001) Kinetic solvent effects on phenolic antioxidants determined by spectrophotometric measurements. J Agric Food Chem 49:342–348. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gizdavic-Nikolaidis M, Travas-Sejdic J, Bowmaker GA, Cooney RP, Thompson C, Kilmartin PA (2004) The antioxidant activity of conducting polymers in biomedical applications. Curr Appl Phys 4:347–350. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gòmez-Alonso S, Garcìa-Romero E, Hermosìn-Gutiérrez I (2007) HPLC analysis of diverse grape and wine phenolics using direct injection and multidetection by DAD and fluorescence. J Food Compos Anal 20:618–626. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harbertson JF, Spayd S (2006) Measuring phenolics in the winery. Am J Enol Vitic 57:280–288Google Scholar
  16. Haslam E (1998) Practical polyphenolics: from structure to molecular recognition and physiological action. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. Ivanova V, Dörnyei Á, Márk L, Vojnoski B, Stafilov T, Stefova M, Kilár F (2011) Polyphenolic content of Vranec wines produced by different vinification conditions. Food Chem 124:316–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ivanova-Petropulos V, Ricci A, Nedelkovski D, Dimovska V, Parpinello GP, Versari A (2015) Targeted analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines. Food Chem 171:412–420. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kilmartin PA, Zou H, Waterhouse AL (2001) A cyclic voltammetry method suitable for characterizing antioxidant properties of wine and wine phenolics. J Agric Food Chem 49:1957–1965. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Litwinienko G, Ingold KU (2003) Abnormal solvent effects on hydrogen atom abstractions. 1. The reactions of phenols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph•) in alcohols. J Org Chem 68:3433–3438. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lorrain B, Ky I, Pechamat L, Teissedre PL (2013) Evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines, and extracts. Molecules 18:1076–1100. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Luque de Castro MD, González-Rodríguez J, Pérez-Juan P (2005) Analytical methods in wineries: is it time to change? Food Rev Intl 21:231–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Magalhães LM, Ramos II, Reis S, Segundo MA (2014) Antioxidant profile of commercial oenological tannins determined by multiple chemical assays. Aust J Grape Wine Res 20:72–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Makhotkina O, Kilmartin PA (2010) The use of cyclic voltammetry for wine analysis: determination of polyphenols and free sulfur dioxide. Anal Chim Acta 668:155–165. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mannino S, Brenna O, Buratti S, Cosio MS (1998) A new method for the evaluation of the ‘antioxidant power’ of wines. Electroanalysis 10:908–912.<908::AID-ELAN908>3.0.CO;2-L CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Muselík J, García-Alonso M, Martín-López MP, Žemlička M, Rivas-Gonzalo JC (2007) Measurement of antioxidant activity of wine catechins, procyanidins, anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins. Int J Mol Sci 8:797–809. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Ribéreau-Gayon P (1970) Le dosage des composés phénoliques totaux dans les vins rouges. Chim Anal 52:627–631Google Scholar
  28. Rivero-Pérez MD, Muñiz P, González-Sanjosé ML (2007) Antioxidant profile of red wines evaluated by total antioxidant capacity, scavenger activity, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methodologies. J Agric Food Chem 55:5476–5483. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Šeruga M, Novak I, Jakobek L (2011) Determination of polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of some red wines by differential pulse voltammetry, HPLC and spectrophotometric methods. Food Chem 124:1208–1216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singleton V, Esau P (1969) Phenolic substances in grape and wine and their significance. Academic Press, New York. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tenore GC, Basile A, Novellino E (2011) Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of polyphenolic fractions from selected Moroccan red wines. J Food Sci 76:C1342–C1348. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arianna Ricci
    • 1
  • Nemanja Teslic
    • 2
  • Violeta-Ivanova Petropolus
    • 3
  • Giuseppina Paola Parpinello
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrea Versari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Food SciencesUniversity of BolognaCesenaItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Food TechnologyUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  3. 3.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity “Goce Delčev”ŠtipRepublic of Macedonia

Personalised recommendations