Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 331–337 | Cite as

Analytical Method to Evaluate Gizzerosine in Fishmeal After Diazonium Derivatization Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • Zhihua TaoEmail author
  • Qinxia Hu
  • Xiaojing Xu
  • Hiromasa Kiyota
  • Zexi Chen
  • Shuying Xie
  • Na Qiao


A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of gizzerosine in fishmeal was developed. The method was performed using an ODS column (250 × 4.6 mm) and achieved a gizzerosine total analysis time of approximately 35 min. Gizzerosine was extracted from fishmeal with a 0.1-N HCl solution, diazotized with sulfanilic acid (Pauly’s reagent), and successfully separated from other reagent-positive components in fishmeal extracts. Using this method, the calibration curve of standard gizzerosine was estimated to be within the range of 1 to 250 mg/l (r2 = 0.9942). The coefficient of variation (relative standard deviation) of gizzerosine derivatization was 0.27%. The mean recovery was 96.2% with addition of 0.1, 1, 5, 10, and 15 μg/100 g of gizzerosine in fishmeal. Moreover, the limit of detection for spiked feed blanks, based on a S/N of 3, was 0.61 mg/kg. This method was also efficient in detection of the wavelength of the analyte derivatives as well as in clean sample preparation. Therefore, this method could be used to analyze gizzerosine in fishmeal.


Fishmeal Gizzerosine HPLC Diazotized Pauly’s reagent 



This study was funded by Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (grant number 2016A010105021), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 31101743).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Zhihua Tao declares that she has no conflict of interest. Qinxia Hu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xiaojing Xu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Hiromasa Kiyota declares that he has no conflict of interest. Zexi Chen declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shuying Xie declares that she has no conflict of interest. Na Qiao declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhihua Tao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qinxia Hu
    • 1
  • Xiaojing Xu
    • 1
  • Hiromasa Kiyota
    • 2
  • Zexi Chen
    • 1
  • Shuying Xie
    • 3
  • Na Qiao
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light IndustryGuangdong University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Graduate School of Environmental and Life ScienceOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan
  3. 3.School of Chemical and BioengineeringNanyang Technology UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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