Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 313–321 | Cite as

A Novel and Validated Chemical-Enzymatic Strontium Fractionation Method for Wheat Flour from Celestite Mining Area: the First Approach for Sequential Fractionation

  • Sema BağdatEmail author
  • Mehmet Hikmet Özkan
  • Feyzullah Tokay
  • Şeref Güçer


In this study, a sequential Sr fractionation scheme was developed for wheat flour matrix. The lipid, water-soluble, and starch fractions were separated successfully. Total and fractionated Sr was determined by ICP-MS. The limits of detection and quantification of the technique were 4.4 and 17.7 μg L−1, respectively. The distribution of Sr was varied between 21.2–31.3%, 28.1–51.2%, and 22.9–49.3% in water-soluble, starch, and residue fractions, respectively. The lipid-bounded strontium was only determined for sample 3 as 0.42 mg kg−1. Additionally, water-soluble content was divided into sub-fractions. The accuracy of the experimental procedure was tested with NIST-8436 durum wheat flour. The certified and sum of the fractionated Sr concentrations were in good agreement with a recovery of 105.0% of the stated concentration. Moreover, simulated in vitro digestion methods were also applied to find out the bioaccessible Sr and to investigate the statistical correlation between fractions and gastrointestinal digests.


Strontium Fractionation analysis Wheat flour Bioavailability ICP-MS 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the office of Scientific Research Projects of Cumhuriyet University for financial support. The authors also thank Bursa Test and Analysis Laboratory (BUTAL) of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) for instrument and technical assistance.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Sema Bağdat declares that she has no conflict of interest. Mehmet Hikmet Özkan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Feyzullah Tokay declares that he has no conflict of interest. Şeref Güçer declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sema Bağdat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mehmet Hikmet Özkan
    • 2
  • Feyzullah Tokay
    • 1
  • Şeref Güçer
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and ArtsBalıkesir UniversityBalıkesirTurkey
  2. 2.Republic of Turkey Ministry of Tradeİstanbul Custom LaboratoryİstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and ArtsUludag UniversityBursaTurkey

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