Multi-residue Determination of Veterinary Drugs in Fishery Products Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
The aim of the present study was to develop a multi-residue confirmation method for the analysis of veterinary drugs in fishery products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The chosen veterinary drugs, which are legally authorized compounds in Korea, were categorized into chemical classes such as amphenicols, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, penicillins, pleuromutilins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines. Sample extraction and cleanup were evaluated based on a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure using octadecylsilane and primary secondary amine sorbents for purification. Extractions were carried out using an ammonium acetate buffer and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (pH 4.0) with the addition of ammonium formate in water/acetonitrile. Instrumental analysis was performed using positive/negative ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The chromatographic conditions were optimized to give run time of < 20 min, and the developed method was validated according to the Codex Alimentarius Commission guidelines. Mean recoveries of the veterinary drugs ranged from 68.1 to 111%. At all target concentrations, the intraday precision was < 15%, and the lowest limits of detection and quantification were < 5 and < 10 μg kg−1. To evaluate the imprecision arising from residual matrix components, the linearity of our method was determined as > 0.98 using matrix-matched calibrations constructed at six different concentrations. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 403 real samples obtained from domestic markets in Korea, and a number of samples tested positive (27.1%) for the targeted drugs. This analytical method is suitable for reliable detection of veterinary drug residues in fishery products.
KeywordsMulti-residue determination Veterinary drug Maximum residue limit Fishery product Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
This work was supported by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea.
This study was funded by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea (Grant numbers 16161MFDS602 and 17161MFDS651).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dasom Shin declares that she has no conflict of interest. Hui-Seung Kang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jiyoon Jeong declares that she has no conflict of interest. Joohye Kim declares that she has no conflict of interest. Won Jo Choe declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kwang Soo Lee declares that he has no conflict of interest. Gyu-Seek Rhee declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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