Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 1528–1537 | Cite as

Determining the Fat Concentration of Fresh Raw Cow Milk Using Dielectric Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics

  • Xinhua Zhu
  • Wenchuan Guo
  • Dayang Liu
  • Fei Kang


Dielectric spectroscopy is usually used to obtain dielectric properties of materials. It not only has the advantages of high speed and little or no sample preparation but can also be used in in-line or in situ quality monitoring. To provide a quick and convenient method for milk fat concentration determination using dielectric spectroscopy, the dielectric spectra of 143 fresh raw cow milk samples were obtained from 20 to 4500 MHz. All samples were divided into calibration set and prediction set by using joint x-y distances sample set partitioning method. One hundred twenty-three, 9, and 40 dielectric variables were selected as effective variables (EVs) by applying uninformative variable elimination, successive projection algorithm, and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling methods, respectively. The models of partial least squares regression (PLSR), extreme learning machine (ELM), and least squares-supporting vector machine (LS-SVM) were built when the full dielectric spectra and selected EVs were used as inputs. The results showed that the PLSR model developed with full dielectric spectra was the best model on fat concentration determination with the root-mean-squares error of prediction set of 0.168%. The study tells that dielectric spectra have potential in exploring a milk fat concentration sensor used for in-line or in situ detection.


Milk Fat Determination Dielectric spectra Dielectric spectroscopy 



The study was financially supported by the project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31671935).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Xinhua Zhu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Wenchuan Guo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dayang Liu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kang Fei declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All experiments involving animals were conducted according to the principles of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Animal Care and Use Committee (Beijing, China), which approved the study protocols.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinhua Zhu
    • 1
  • Wenchuan Guo
    • 1
  • Dayang Liu
    • 1
  • Fei Kang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Mechanical and Electronic EngineeringNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina

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