Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 1493–1500 | Cite as

Rapid Multi-Residue Determination of Pesticides in Animal-Derived Food via Modified QuEChERS Sample Preparation and GC/MS

  • Xu Qin
  • Lijie Zhao
  • Qingqing Huang
  • Yiyun Liu
  • Yingming Xu
  • Dongmei Qin
  • Yetong Liu


A group of methods were developed for the determination of etofenprox, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinil, azoxystrobin, and pyrimethanil residues in animal-derived food (milk, egg, pig liver, pig fat, pork, and chicken) by using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With acetonitrile as the extraction solvent, the samples were pretreated with the improved QuEChERS method including extraction, salting-out, and purification processes. Then, all the sample extracts were analyzed with GC/MS in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode and quantified by the external standard method using the matrix-matched standard method. Under electron ionization conditions, the analysis was carried out with a DB-5 MS capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min−1. 163, 116, 224, 344, and 198 were selected as quantitative ion of etofenprox, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinil, azoxystrobin, and pyrimethanil, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.0002–5.0 mg L−1 for the five pesticides mentioned above, with correlation coefficients (R2) were more than 0.99. The average recoveries of the five pesticides spiked at three levels were 72.46–104.88%, with the RSDs (n = 5) of 0.70–11.26%. The LODs (S/N > 3) of five pesticides were 0.0002–0.02 mg L−1; the LOQs were 0.0002–0.01 mg kg−1 in milk, egg, pig liver, pig fat, pork, and chicken samples. Such methods showed the advantages of simplicity, rapidness, and sensitivity, and could meet the requirements for the determination of five pesticides residues in various animal derived foods.


Pesticide residue GC/MS QuEChERS Animal-derived food 



The authors sincerely thank Institute for the Control of Agroehemicals, Ministry of Agriculture of P. R. China.


This study was funded by the Transformation and Popularization Project of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements of Tianjin (Project Number 201502290).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Xu Qin declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lijie Zhao declares that he has no conflict of interest. Qingqing Huang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yiyun Liu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yingming Xu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dongmei Qin declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yetong Liu declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xu Qin
    • 1
  • Lijie Zhao
    • 1
  • Qingqing Huang
    • 1
  • Yiyun Liu
    • 1
  • Yingming Xu
    • 1
  • Dongmei Qin
    • 2
  • Yetong Liu
    • 3
  1. 1.Innovation Team of Remediation for Heavy Metal Contaminated Farmland of Chinese Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Agro-Environmental Protection InstituteMinistry of AgricultureTianjinChina
  2. 2.Institute for the Control of AgrochemicalsMinistry of AgricultureBeijingChina
  3. 3.Tianjin Institute of Agricultural Quality Standard and Testing TechnologyTianjinChina

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