Optimization and Validation of a New Capillary Electrophoresis Method with Conductivity Detection for Determination of Small Anions in Red Wines
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A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method has been developed and validated for determination of organic acids (oxalate, tartrate, malate, malonate, pyruvate, succinate, acetate, citrate, and lactate) and inorganic anions (sulfate and phosphate) in red wines. The separations were carried out in an automated separation system equipped with wide-bore (300 μm i.d.) fluoroplastic capillary and contact conductivity detector used for monitoring the separation and quantification of the analytes. The fast method (analysis time less than 5 min.) provided a good linearity of calibration curves (R 2 > 0.9920) for the studied acids, as well as a good reproducibility of migration times (RSD < 1.5%). In total, 17 red wines were analyzed with the proposed method, including Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot wines from various geographic areas (Demir Kapija, Kavadarci, Negotino, and Veles) in Macedonia. The used fully automated separation system (sample dilution not included) predetermined the developed CE method for routine analysis.
KeywordsWine Organic acids Inorganic anions Validation Capillary electrophoresis
This work was financially supported by following projects: “Biogenic aminies and aroma in Vranec wines from Macedonia and Montenegro and effect of malolactic fermentation on their formation,” provided by the Macedonian Ministry of Education and Science and “Chemical characterization of wine, alcoholic beverages and food by instrumental techniques” provided by University “Goce Delčev”—Štip. The financial support of the Slovak Research and Development Agency (APVV-0259-12) and the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research, and Sport of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences (VEGA 1/0342/15) is gratefully acknowledged. One of us (Z.L.) thanks SAIA and CEEPUS (CIII-RO-0010-11-1617) mobility grants.
Macedonian Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Macedonia; University “Goce Delčev”—Štip; the Slovak Research and Development Agency; the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research, and Sport of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences; and Slovak Academic Information Agency.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Zorica Lelova declares that she has no conflict of interest. Violeta Ivanova-Petropulos declares that she has no conflict of interest. Marián Masár declares that he has no conflict of interest. Klemen Lisjak declares that he has no conflict of interest. Róbert Bodor declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals.
It was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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