Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 1380–1389 | Cite as

Feasibility of Discriminating Dried Dairy Ingredients and Preheat Treatments Using Mid-Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy

  • Xiao Wang
  • Carlos Esquerre
  • Gerard Downey
  • Lisa Henihan
  • Donal O’Callaghan
  • Colm O’Donnell
Article
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

This study investigated the feasibility of mid-infrared (MIR) and Raman spectroscopy for (i) discrimination of three dried dairy ingredients, namely skim milk powder (SMP), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and demineralised whey protein (DWP) powder, and (ii) discrimination of preheat treatments of dried dairy ingredients using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). PLS1-DA models developed using MIR ranges of 800–1800 and 1200–1800 cm−1 yielded the best discrimination (correct identification of 97.2% for SMP discrimination and 100% for WPC and DWP discrimination). The best PLS2-DA model using MIR spectroscopy was developed over the spectral range of 800–1800 cm−1 and produced correct identification of 100% for dairy ingredient discrimination. Models developed using Raman 800–1800 and 1200–1800 cm−1 spectral ranges correctly discriminated (100% correctly identified) each dairy ingredient. Although all PLS1-DA and PLS2-DA models developed using both spectral technologies for preheat treatment discrimination had good discrimination accuracy (86–100%), they employed a high number of factors (8–9 for the best model). The use of the Martens uncertainty test successfully reduced the number of factors employed (3–4 for the best models) and improved the performance of PLS1-DA models for preheat treatment discrimination (all 100% correctly identified). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of both MIR and Raman spectroscopy for rapid characterisation of dried dairy ingredients.

Keywords

Mid-infrared spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy Dairy ingredients Preheat treatment Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Xiao Wang wishes to acknowledge the Chinese Scholarship Council for financially supporting his PhD study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Xiao Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Carlos Esquerre declares that he has no conflict of interest. Gerard Downey declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lisa Henihan declares that she has no conflict of interest. Donal O’Callaghan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Colm O’Donnell declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12161_2017_1114_MOESM1_ESM.docx (39 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 38 kb)

References

  1. Almeida MR, Oliveira KS, Stephani R, de Oliveira LFC (2011) Fourier-transform Raman analysis of milk powder: a potential method for rapid quality screening. J Raman Spectrosc 42(7):1548–1552.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.2893 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayala N, Zamora A, González C, Saldo J, Castillo M (2017) Predicting lactulose concentration in heat-treated reconstituted skim milk powder using front-face fluorescence Food Control 73, Part A:110–116 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.09.040
  3. Bassbasi M, De Luca M, Ioele G, Oussama A, Ragno G (2014a) Prediction of the geographical origin of butters by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) applied to infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data. J Food Compos Anal 33(2):210–215.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2013.11.010
  4. Bassbasi M, Platikanov S, Tauler R, Oussama A (2014b) FTIR-ATR determination of solid non fat (SNF) in raw milk using PLS and SVM chemometric methods. Food Chem 146:250–254.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beattie JR, Bell SEJ, Borggaard C, Moss BW (2008) Preliminary investigations on the effects of ageing and cooking on the Raman spectra of porcine longissimus dorsi. Meat Sci 80(4):1205–1211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buggy AK, McManus JJ, Brodkorb A, Carthy NM, Fenelon MA (2017) Stabilising effect of α-lactalbumin on concentrated infant milk formula emulsions heat treated pre- or post-homogenisation. Dairy Sci Technol 96(6):845–859.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-016-0306-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng Y, Dong Y, Wu J, Yang X, Bai H, Zheng H, Ren D, Zou Y, Li M (2010) Screening melamine adulterant in milk powder with laser Raman spectrometry. J Food Compos Anal 23(2):199–202.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2009.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Damjanovic Desic S, Birlouez-Aragon I (2011) The FAST index—a highly sensitive indicator of the heat impact on infant formula model. Food Chem 124(3):1043–1049.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.07.071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Carvalho BMA, de Carvalho LM, dos Reis Coimbra JS, Minim LA, de Souza Barcellos E, da Silva Júnior WF, Detmann E, de Carvalho GGP (2015) Rapid detection of whey in milk powder samples by spectrophotometric and multivariate calibration. Food Chem 174:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El-Abassy RM, Eravuchira PJ, Donfack P, von der Kammer B, Materny A (2011) Fast determination of milk fat content using Raman spectroscopy. Vib Spectrosc 56(1):3–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2010.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fagan CC (2014) Infrared spectroscopy. In: O’Donnell CP, Fagan C, Cullen PJ (eds) Process analytical technology for the food industry. Springer New York, New York, NY, pp 73–101.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0311-5_4 Google Scholar
  12. Hougaard AB, Lawaetz AJ, Ipsen RH (2013) Front face fluorescence spectroscopy and multi-way data analysis for characterization of milk pasteurized using instant infusion. LWT Food Sci Technol 53(1):331–337.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang Z, Rai DK, O'Connor PM, Brodkorb A (2013) Heat-induced Maillard reaction of the tripeptide IPP and ribose: structural characterization and implication on bioactivity. Food Res Int 50(1):266–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.09.028
  14. Joyce AM, Brodkorb A, Kelly AL, O’Mahony JA (2017) Separation of the effects of denaturation and aggregation on whey-casein protein interactions during the manufacture of a model infant formula. Dairy Sci Technol 96(6):787–806.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-016-0303-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kamal M, Karoui R (2015) Analytical methods coupled with chemometric tools for determining the authenticity and detecting the adulteration of dairy products: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 46(1):27–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2015.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Keefe DM (2014) Agency response letter GRAS notice no. GRN 000504Google Scholar
  17. Kher A, Udabage P, McKinnon I, McNaughton D, Augustin MA (2007) FTIR investigation of spray-dried milk protein concentrate powders. Vib Spectrosc 44(2):375–381.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2007.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kizil R, Irudayaraj J (2014) Raman spectroscopy. In: O'Donnell CP, Fagan C, Cullen PJ (eds) Process analytical technology for the food industry. Springer New York, New York, NY, pp 103–134.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0311-5_5 Google Scholar
  19. LaClair CE, Etzel MR (2010) Ingredients and pH are key to clear beverages that contain whey protein. J Food Sci 75(1):C21–C27.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01400.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lei Y, Zhou Q, Zhang Y-l, Chen J-b, Sun S-q, Noda I (2010) Analysis of crystallized lactose in milk powder by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy. J Mol Struct 974(1-3):88–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2009.12.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu G, Li Y, Cao J, Ren D, Yuan D, Zhang L (2012) Changes of microbiological and physicochemical properties in Chinese infant formula caused by high heat treatment applied on concentrated milk. Dairy Sci Technol 92(6):719–733.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-012-0089-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McGoverin CM, Clark ASS, Holroyd SE, Gordon KC (2010) Raman spectroscopic quantification of milk powder constituents. Anal Chim Acta 673(1):26–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2010.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mocanu AM, Moldoveanu C, Odochian L, Paius CM, Apostolescu N, Neculau R (2012) Study on the thermal behavior of casein under nitrogen and air atmosphere by means of the TG-FTIR technique. Thermochim Acta 546:120–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2012.07.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morgan F, Appolonia Nouzille C, Baechler R, Vuataz G, Raemy A (2005) Lactose crystallisation and early Maillard reaction in skim milk powder and whey protein concentrates. Lait 85(4-5):315–323.  https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:2005017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moros J, Garrigues S, de la Guardia M (2007) Evaluation of nutritional parameters in infant formulas and powdered milk by Raman spectroscopy. Anal Chim Acta 593(1):30–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2007.04.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murphy EG, Roos YH, Hogan SA, Maher PG, Flynn CG, Fenelon MA (2015) Physical stability of infant milk formula made with selectively hydrolysed whey proteins. Int Dairy J 40:39–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2014.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nedeljkovic A, Tomasevic I, Miocinovic J, Pudja P (2017) Feasibility of discrimination of dairy creams and cream-like analogues using Raman spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Food Chem 232:487–492.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pang ZH, Zhu J, WJ W, Wang F, Ren FZ, Zhang LD, Guo HY (2011) The secondary structure of heated whey protein and its hydrolysates antigenicity. Spectrosc Spectr Anal 31:3055–3059Google Scholar
  29. Parris N, Purcell JM, Ptashkin SM (1991) Thermal denaturation of whey proteins in skim milk. J Agric Food Chem 39(12):2167–2170.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00012a013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Patel HA, Anema SG, Holroyd SE, Singh H, Creamer LK (2007) Methods to determine denaturation and aggregation of proteins in low-, medium- and high-heat skim milk powders. Lait 87(4-5):251–268.  https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:2007027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pedersen DK, Morel S, Andersen HJ, Balling Engelsen S (2003) Early prediction of water-holding capacity in meat by multivariate vibrational spectroscopy. Meat Sci 65(1):581–592.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00251-6
  32. Pojić MM, Mastilović JS (2013) Near infrared spectroscopy—advanced analytical tool in wheat breeding, trade, and processing. Food Bioprocess Technol 6(2):330–352.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0917-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rodrigues Júnior PH, de Sá Oliveira K, Almeida CER, de Oliveira LFC, Stephani R, Pinto MS, Carvalho AF, Perrone ÍT (2016) FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin. Food Chem 196:584–588.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.09.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roussel S, Preys S, Chauchard F, Lallemand J (2014) Multivariate data analysis (Chemometrics). In: O'Donnell CP, Fagan C, Cullen PJ (eds) Process analytical Technology for the Food Industry. Springer New York, New York, NY, pp 7–59.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0311-5_2 Google Scholar
  35. Sadiq FA, Li Y, Liu T, Flint S, Zhang G, He G (2016) A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China. Int J Food Microbiol 217:200–208.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.10.030
  36. Smith GPS, Gordon KC, Holroyd SE (2013) Raman spectroscopic quantification of calcium carbonate in spiked milk powder samples. Vib Spectrosc 67:87–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2013.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Souza SS, Cruz AG, Walter EHM, Faria JAF, Celeghini RMS, Ferreira MMC, Granato D, Sant’Ana AS (2011) Monitoring the authenticity of Brazilian UHT milk: a chemometric approach. Food Chem 124(2):692–695.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.06.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tomasevic I, Nedeljković A, Stanišić N, Pudja P (2016) Authenticity assessment of cooked emulsified sausages using Raman spectroscopy and chemometricsGoogle Scholar
  39. Turner JA, Sivasundaram LR, Ottenhof M-A, Farhat IA, Linforth RST, Taylor AJ (2002) Monitoring chemical and physical changes during thermal flavor generation. J Agric Food Chem 50(19):5406–5411.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0203803 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. van Ruth S, Bremer MEG, Frankhuizen R (2010) Detection of adulterations. In: Safety analysis of foods of animal origin CRC Press, pp 851–863. doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/EBK1439848173-37
  41. Yazdanpanah N, Langrish TAG (2013) Comparative study of deteriorative changes in the ageing of milk powder. J Food Eng 114(1):14–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.07.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yuan D-D, Liu GC, Ren DY, Zhang D, Zhao L, Kan CP, Yang YZ, Ma W, Li Y, Zhang LB (2012) A survey on occurrence of thermophilic bacilli in commercial milk powders in China. Food Control 25(2):752–757.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.12.020
  43. Zhao M, Downey G, O’Donnell CP (2015) Dispersive Raman spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to detect offal adulteration of thawed beefburgers. J Agric Food Chem 63(5):1433–1441.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf5041959 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhou Q, Sun S-Q, Yu L, C-H X, Noda I, Zhang X-R (2006) Sequential changes of main components in different kinds of milk powders using two-dimensional infrared correlation analysis. J Mol Struct 799(1-3):77–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2006.03.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCD School of Biosystems and Food EngineeringUniversity College DublinDublin 4Ireland
  2. 2.Food Chemistry and Technology DepartmentTeagasc Food Research CentreDublin 15Ireland
  3. 3.Food Chemistry and Technology DepartmentTeagasc Food Research CentreCo. CorkIreland

Personalised recommendations