Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxin B1, Bisphenol A, and 4-Nonylphenol in Peanut Oils by Liquid-Liquid Extraction Combined with Solid-Phase Extraction and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
An analytical method based on liquid-liquid extraction combined with solid-phase extraction and isotope dilution-ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was well developed for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in peanut oil. After adding isotope internal standards, the samples were firstly diluted by normal hexane and then extracted by acetonitrile and Carb/PSA solid-phase extraction cartridge in sequence to obtain the extracted solution. All the extracted solution was merged and was subsequently dried to near dryness by a mild nitrogen stream. Three target analytes were separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 chromatographic column, quantified by an internal standard method and detected by ESI positive (ESI+) and negative (ESI−) subsection acquisition modes under multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions. Results demonstrated that the three target analytes exhibited excellent linearity in their corresponding concentration ranges of 0.1–100.0 μg/L with correlation coefficients all greater than 0.998. The corresponding method limits of quantitation (MLOQ, S/N = 10) of AFB1, BPA, and 4-NP were 0.2, 1.0, and 2.0 μg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the mean recoveries for negative samples spiked at three concentration levels were calculated between 87.7 and 105.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) ranging from 2.2 to 7.9% and the interday precision (n = 5) ranging from 5.0 to 8.7%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to analyze 52 peanut oil samples, and AFB1 and 4-NP were detected in 43 samples with the concentrations in the ranges of 0.5–69.4 and 9.3–77.8 μg/kg, respectively. None of BPA was detected in any samples.
KeywordsPeanut oil Aflatoxin B1 Bisphenol A 4-Nonylphenol Solid-phase extraction Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Hongling Deng declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xinguo Su declares that he has no conflict of interest. Haibo Wang declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
- Bao L, Liang C, Trucksess MW, Xu Y, Lv N, Wu Z, Jing P, Fry FS (2013) Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: First action 2013.05. J AOAC Int 96(5):1017–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bao L, Trucksess MW, White KD (2010) Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil. J AOAC Int 93(3):936–942Google Scholar
- Dang H, Liu D, Hou X, Wu Y, Wang B, Dong H, Xian Y (2017) One-step extraction prior to two-step detection by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) to determine different groups of antibacterial agents in infant disposable hygiene products. Anal Methods 9(3):482–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dong H, Xiao KJ, Luo DH, Xiang YP, Luo HY, Guo XD, Li C, Zhao MM (2016) Adulteration identification of commercial honey with the C-4 sugar content of negative values by an elemental analyzer and liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 64(42):8071–8071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fan S, Li Q, Zhang X, Cui X, Zhang D, Zhang Y (2015) Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography. J Sep Sci 38(8):1310–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- GB 5009.22–2016 (2016) The method for the determination of aflatoxin B and aflatoxin G in food, National Standard of thePeople’s Republic of ChinaGoogle Scholar
- Lv T, Zhao XE, Zhu S, Qu F, Song C, You J, Suo Y (2014) Determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Sep Sci 37(19):2757–2763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Gomez R, Dorival-Garcia N, Zafra-Gomez A, Camino-Sanchez FJ, Ballesteros O, Navalon A (2015) New method for the determination of parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples using ultrasound-assisted extraction and clean-up with dispersive sorbents prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 992:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Salgueiro-Gonzalez N, Concha-Grana E, Turnes-Carou I, Muniategui-Lorenzo S, Lopez-Mahia P, Prada-Rodriguez D (2012) Determination of alkylphenols and bisphenol A in seawater samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for compliance with environmental quality standards (Directive 2008/105/EC). J Chromatogr A 3:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shih HK, Shu TY, Ponnusamy VK, Jen JF (2015) A novel fatty-acid-based in-tube dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique for the rapid determination of nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol in aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Anal Chim Acta 854:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wu Z, Xu Y, Li M, Guo X, Xian Y, Dong H (2016c) Simultaneous determination of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) and photoinitiators (PIs) in food packaging coated paper products by the UPLC-MS/MS method using ESI positive and negative switching modes. Anal Methods 8(5):1052–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang L, Jin F, Zhang P, Zhang Y, Wang J, Shao H, Jin M, Wang S, Zheng L (2015) Simultaneous determination of perfluorinated compounds in edible oil by gel-permeation chromatography combined with dispersive solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 63(38):8364–8371CrossRefGoogle Scholar