Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 2078–2084 | Cite as

Detection of the Presence of Reconstituted Milk in Raw Milk and in Pasteurized Milk Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy



The increasing demand for dairy products has led to the adulteration of milk with reconstituted milk. This may be a problem for unsuspecting consumers. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was used to detect the adulteration of raw milk and pasteurized milk by the addition of reconstituted milk. Milk samples were prepared by the precipitation of casein with a pH 4.6 buffer solution to separate the whey protein. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were then captured over an excitation wavelength between 200 and 500 nm at a wavelength interval (Δλ) of 75 nm. The raw data of the spectra were then subjected to a second derivative, and the ratio of the peaks of characteristic Maillard reaction products and tryptophan (2nDFM/T) were used to detect the adulteration of raw and pasteurized milk with reconstituted milk. This method is unaffected by variations in environmental temperature. The results indicate that the detection of reconstituted milk in raw and pasteurized milk can be achieved with an accuracy of 86.7 and 90%, while linear equations could be used to estimate the content range of reconstituted milk roughly according to the fluorescence data.


Synchronous fluorescence Adulteration Reconstituted milk Raw milk Pasteurized milk 


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This study was financially supported by the National key foundation for exploring scientific instrument of China (2012YQ140005).

Conflict of Interest

Huan Liu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Wen Liu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Donghai Han declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shiping Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. This is an original research article that has neither been published previously nor considered presently for publication elsewhere.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

All authors named in the manuscript are entitled to the authorship and have approved the final version of the submitted manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food Science and Nutritional EngineeringChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina

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