Simultaneous Determination of Quinoxalines in Animal Feeds by a Modified QuEChERS Method with MWCNTs as the Sorbent Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
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A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as sorbent solvent combined with HPLC was developed for the simultaneous determination of olaquindox, carbadox, mequindox, quinocetone, and cyadox in animal feeds. Sample preparation was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with methanol-acetonitrile-H2O (50:25:25, v/v/v) as extraction solvent and a final clean-up using QuEChERS with MWCNTs (30–50 nm) as the sorbent solvent. To achieve the optimum conditions for extraction the target analytes and modified QuEChERS toward target analytes, several parameters, including extraction solvent and time as well as the type and amount of the adsorbents were investigated. The detection and quantification of five quinoxalines were performed by HPLC-UV. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using methanol-water as the mobile phase. The limits of detection and quantification of the analytes ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 and 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries from spiked sample ranged from 66.0 to 95.6% with the relative standard deviations of less than 14.1%. The developed method was successfully utilized to monitor real samples, demonstrating that it is simple, fast, and robust, and may be used to monitor quinoxalines residues in animal feeds.
KeywordsQuinoxalines QuEChERS MWCNTs HPLC Animal feeds
This work was supported by Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (No. 201203040) and 2016 National Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products (GJFP2016007).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Yi Zhao declares that he has no conflict of interest. Tingting Yue declares that she has no conflict of interest. Tanfei Tao declares that he has no conflict of interest. Wang Xu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lingli Huang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Shuyu Xie declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yuanhu Pan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dapeng Peng declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dongmei Chen declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zonghui Yuan declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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