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Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 2085–2091 | Cite as

Simultaneous Determination of Quinoxalines in Animal Feeds by a Modified QuEChERS Method with MWCNTs as the Sorbent Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • Yi Zhao
  • Tingting Yue
  • Tanfei Tao
  • Xu Wang
  • Lingli Huang
  • Shuyu Xie
  • Yuanhu Pan
  • Dapeng Peng
  • Dongmei Chen
  • Zonghui Yuan
Article

Abstract

A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as sorbent solvent combined with HPLC was developed for the simultaneous determination of olaquindox, carbadox, mequindox, quinocetone, and cyadox in animal feeds. Sample preparation was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with methanol-acetonitrile-H2O (50:25:25, v/v/v) as extraction solvent and a final clean-up using QuEChERS with MWCNTs (30–50 nm) as the sorbent solvent. To achieve the optimum conditions for extraction the target analytes and modified QuEChERS toward target analytes, several parameters, including extraction solvent and time as well as the type and amount of the adsorbents were investigated. The detection and quantification of five quinoxalines were performed by HPLC-UV. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using methanol-water as the mobile phase. The limits of detection and quantification of the analytes ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 and 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries from spiked sample ranged from 66.0 to 95.6% with the relative standard deviations of less than 14.1%. The developed method was successfully utilized to monitor real samples, demonstrating that it is simple, fast, and robust, and may be used to monitor quinoxalines residues in animal feeds.

Keywords

Quinoxalines QuEChERS MWCNTs HPLC Animal feeds 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (No. 201203040) and 2016 National Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products (GJFP2016007).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Yi Zhao declares that he has no conflict of interest. Tingting Yue declares that she has no conflict of interest. Tanfei Tao declares that he has no conflict of interest. Wang Xu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lingli Huang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Shuyu Xie declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yuanhu Pan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dapeng Peng declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dongmei Chen declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zonghui Yuan declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Zhao
    • 1
  • Tingting Yue
    • 1
  • Tanfei Tao
    • 1
  • Xu Wang
    • 1
  • Lingli Huang
    • 1
  • Shuyu Xie
    • 1
  • Yuanhu Pan
    • 1
  • Dapeng Peng
    • 1
  • Dongmei Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zonghui Yuan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug ResiduesHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.MOA Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry ProductsHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed SafetyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

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