Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 2068–2077 | Cite as

Determination of Ethyl Carbamate (EC) by GC-MS and Characterization of Aroma Compounds by HS-SPME-GC-MS During Wine Frying Status in Hakka Yellow Rice Wine

  • Weidong Bai
  • Shuangge Sun
  • Wenhong Zhao
  • Min Qian
  • Xiaoyan Liu
  • Weixin Chen


Wine frying status is one of the most important processes in the brewing of Chinese yellow rice wine (CYW) and has a great influence on the quality and flavor of CYW. The present work determined the ethyl carbamate (EC) concentration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and aroma compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS) during wine frying status in CYW. In addition, effects of wine frying conditions on the changes of EC and aroma compounds were also investigated. Results indicated that EC concentration increased along with the increase of wine frying temperature and time. Pearson test indicated that EC had highly significant correlation (p < 0.01) with temperature and time. Esters, alcohols, and ethers consisted of the most aroma components and constituted the main flavor of CYW. Considering EC concentration, main flavor, unique ingredients, and proportions of volatile aroma compounds, 70 °C and 11–20 min are the most appropriate temperature and time for wine frying of CYW. It is necessary to control wine frying conditions influencing EC formation and aroma compounds in CYW brewing.


Chinese yellow rice wine GC-MS Wine frying Ethyl carbamate Aroma compounds Urea 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371842).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Weidong Bai declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shuangge Sun declares that he has no conflict of interest. Wenhong Zhao declares that she has no conflict of interest. Min Qian declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xiaoyan Liu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Weixin Chen declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

12161_2016_754_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 13 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weidong Bai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuangge Sun
    • 1
  • Wenhong Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Min Qian
    • 1
  • Xiaoyan Liu
    • 1
  • Weixin Chen
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Light Industry and Food SciencesZhongkai University of Agricultural and EngineeringGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.College of Food ScienceSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina

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