Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1857–1869 | Cite as

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Profile of 20 Commercial Samples of Truffles, Truffle Sauces, and Truffle-Flavored Oils by Using HS-SPME-GC-MS

  • Elisabetta Torregiani
  • Sophie Lorier
  • Gianni Sagratini
  • Filippo Maggi
  • Sauro Vittori
  • Giovanni Caprioli


The aroma profile of raw truffles, of truffle sauces, and of natural and artificial truffle flavored oils made from or made to imitate Tuber magnatum, Tuber melanosporum, and Tuber aestivum was characterized by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Both naturally and artificially made oils were not only mainly dominated by bis(methylthio)methane (BMTM), a marker compound typical of white truffle, but also found in most of the oil samples flavored with black truffle. BMTM was not detected or detected in low amounts in black truffles but was very high in sauces (59.74–77.691%); instead, 1-octen-3-ol was high in truffles (35.227–75.208%) but low in sauces. Along the same lines, terpenoid compounds such as α-cubebene, copaene, caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and α-farnesene were not detected at all in T. aestivum raw truffle but were present in most truffle sauces. Thus, it was found that neither the natural nor the artificial truffle oil samples adequately replicated the aromas of the species of truffle examined, and this was confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA).


Truffle Truffle flavored oils Truffle sauces HS-SPME GC-MS 





Solid-phase microextraction


Gas chromatography


Mass spectrometry


Volatile organic compound



The authors would like to thank Sheila Beatty for her editing of the English usage in the manuscript and Urbani Tartufi S.r.l. (Sant’Anatolia di Narco, Perugia, Italy) for economic support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


Funding information is not available.

Conflict of Interest

Elisabetta Torregiani declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sophie Lorier declares that she has no conflict of interest. Gianni Sagratini declares that he has no conflict of interest. Filippo Maggi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Sauro Vittori declares that he has no conflict of interest. Giovanni Caprioli declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabetta Torregiani
    • 1
  • Sophie Lorier
    • 1
  • Gianni Sagratini
    • 1
  • Filippo Maggi
    • 1
  • Sauro Vittori
    • 1
  • Giovanni Caprioli
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PharmacyUniversity of CamerinoCamerinoItaly

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