Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 2092–2101 | Cite as

Determination of Lemon Juice Adulteration by Analysis of Gas Chromatography Profile of Volatile Organic Compounds Extracted with Nano-Sized Polyester-Polyaniline Fiber



Nano-sized polyaniline (50–150 nm) has been prepared by polymerization of aniline on the surface of the commercial polyester fiber. A method for determination of adulteration in lemon juice samples was developed. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) by polyester-polyaniline fiber to extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and analysis of gas chromatography (GC) profile were used. The effects of industrial lemon juice (ILJ) percent, organic lemon juice (OLJ) percent, and storage time of lemon juice as tree variable factors on the gas chromatography profile were studied. D-optimal combined design (DOCD) was applied to design the experiments that study the gas chromatography profile. For this purpose, the recorded chromatograms of VOCs were divided into four-time sections (0–5, 5–10, 10–15, and 15–20 min) and the peak number, total peak height, and total peak area in the four divided time sections were analyzed. The results were analyzed, and statistical test of correlation and linear regression was used. Results showed that there is good relation between industrial lemon juice percent, organic lemon juice percent, and storage time and peak characters (peak numbers, total peak height, and total peak area) in the divided time sections of each chromatogram. So, the presented method is a good method to find adulteration in organic lemon juice by gas chromatography profile analysis.


Lemon juice Adulteration Polyaniline Nano-sized Volatile compound Gas chromatography profile 



This work has been supported by grants from the Urmia University Research Council, and the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


This study was funded by Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Conflict of Interest

Sajad Pirsa declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mohammad Alizadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest. Nasrin Faraji declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology Faculty of AgricultureUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran

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