Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1914–1921 | Cite as

Modelling and Analysis of Moisture Sorption Isotherm of Raw and Pregelatinized Rice Flour and Its Crystalline Status Prediction



Moisture sorption behaviour of pregelatinized rice flour, in comparison to raw rice flour was studied. Empirical modelling, analysis of moisture adsorption behaviour and biophysical properties were considered to understand the mechanism of the high moisture sorption behaviour followed by the prediction of crystalline status of flour samples. Type II sorption characteristic was found for both raw and pregelatinized rice flour samples. Monolayer moisture content of 0.0581 and 0.0419 g/g (db), respectively, was obtained for raw and pregelatinized rice flour. BET surface area (S BET m2/g) of pregelatinized rice flour was found to be less than raw rice flour. Further, a single parameter empirical model was derived to explain the moisture sorption behaviour of rice flour. In the derived model, the model parameter (K) was considered as the crystalline status. Evidently, X-ray diffraction study was used as the confirmatory tool to justify the explanation given for the model term (K). Lower K value obtained for pregelatinized rice flour was indicative of lower crystalline order and higher affinity to absorb moisture. The result obtained out of this work provides a new insight into the high water sorption behaviour of pregelatinized starch. In addition, the empirical model can also be useful for prediction of crystalline status of starchy materials.


Gelatinization properties Moisture adsorption isotherm Rice flour Surface area Crystalline status 


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This research was financially supported by Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, under INSPIRE Ph.D. fellowship (No. DST/INSPIRE Fellowship/2013/997), received by first author. First author is also thankful Dr. Vasudha Sharma for her suggestion during various stages of manuscript preparation.

Conflict of Interest

Soumya Ranjan Purohit declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dr. Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


  1. Al-Muhtaseb AH, McMinn WAM, Magee TRA (2004) Water sorption isotherms of starch powders. Part 2: thermodynamic characteristics. J Food Eng 62:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Muhtaseb AH, McMinn WAM, Magee TRA (2002) Moisture sorption isotherm characteristics of food products: a review. Food Bioprod Process 80:118–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P (2009) Food chemistry, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin (DE)Google Scholar
  4. BIS (1978) Method of edible starch and starch product. IS: 4706 (part-II)Google Scholar
  5. Block A, Bettelheim FA (1970) Water vapor sorption of hyaluronic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta 201:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brett B, Figueroa M, Sandoval AJ et al (2009) Moisture sorption characteristics of starchy products: oat flour and rice flour. Food Biophys 4:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brunauer S, Emmett PH, Teller E (1938) Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J Am Chem Soc 60:309–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durakova AG, Menkov ND (2004) Moisture sorption characteristics of rice flour. Nahrung – Food 48:137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dutta H, Mahanta C (2012) Effect of hydrothermal treatment varying in time and pressure on the properties of parboiled rices with different amylose content. Food Res Int 49:655–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geankoplis CJ (2003) Principle of mass transfer. Transport process and separation process principle. 4th Edition 410–446Google Scholar
  11. Jena S, Das H (2012) Moisture sorption studies on vacuum dried coconut presscake. J Food Sci Technol 49:638–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kar N, Jain RK, Srivastav PP (1999) Parboiling of dehusked rice. J Food Eng 39:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lai HM, Cheng HH (2004) Properties of pregelatinized rice flour made by hot air or gum puffing. Int J Food Sci Technol 39:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lewicki PP (2004) Water as the determinant of food engineering properties-A review. J Food Eng 61:483–495Google Scholar
  15. Marti A, Caramanico R, Bottega G, Pagani MA (2013) Cooking behavior of rice pasta: effect of thermal treatments and extrusion conditions. LWT—Food Sc and Technol 54:229–235Google Scholar
  16. Nakorn KN, Tongdang T, Sirivongpaisal P (2009) Crystallinity and rheological properties of pregelatinized rice starches differing in amylose content. Starch/Staerke 61:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Reddy BS, Chakraverty A (2004) Physical properties of raw and parboiled paddy. Biosyst Eng 88:461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Resio ANC, Aguerre RJ, Suarez C (2005) Analysis of simultaneous water absorption and water-starch reaction during soaking of amaranth grain. J Food Eng 68:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sablani SS, Kasapis S, Rahman MS (2007) Evaluating water activity and glass transition concepts for food stability. J Food Eng 78:266–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sablani SS, Kasapis S, Rahman MS (2004) Sorption isotherms and the state diagram for evaluating stability criteria of abalone. Food Res Int 37:915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sato Y, Wada Y, Higo A (2010) Relationship between monolayer and multilayer water contents, and involvement in gelatinization of baked starch products. ​J Food Eng 96:172–178Google Scholar
  22. Sinija VR, Mishra HN (2008) Moisture sorption isotherms and heat of sorption of instant (soluble) green tea powder and green tea granules. J Food Eng 86:494–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Siripatrawan U, Jantawat P (2006) Determination of moisture sorption isotherms of Jasmine rice crackers using BET and GAB models. Food Sci Technol Int 12:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Viollaz PE, Rovedo CO (1999) Equilibrium sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of starch and gluten. J Food Eng 40:287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Włodarczyk-Stasiak M, Jamroz J (2009) Specific surface area and porosity of starch extrudates determined from nitrogen adsorption data. J Food Eng 93:379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soumya Ranjan Purohit
    • 1
  • Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural and Food Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations