Discrimination of Cocoa Bean Origin by Chocolate Polyphenol Chromatographic Analysis and Chemometrics
- 319 Downloads
Nowadays, the traceability and origin authentification in foodstuff is of great interest for consumers and industries. It is proved that the chemical composition is linked to the geographical and varietal origin of food products. Cocoa, the main ingredient in chocolate, provides a lot of polyphenol compounds still present in the chocolate bars. By analyzing these chemical species, we aim to investigate the information about the country of origin of chocolate. Our method is based on an acetone/water liquid/liquid extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-DAD-MS). Forty-seven chocolate samples of different varieties (Criollo, Trinitario, Nacional, and Forastero) from 12 countries within two continents were analyzed. Polyphenols such as catechin, epicatechin, and several of procyanidins’ polymers were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 21 variables: 20 polyphenols and the polyphenol total content. The results highlight that the polyphenolic profile allows to classify the chocolate samples according to geographical origins (Madagascar, Caribbean, different countries from South America and Africa) as well as their variety.
KeywordsChocolate Polyphenol Geographical origin Cocoa HPLC-DAD-MS Principal component analysis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Amandine Cambrai declares that she has no conflict of interest. Eric Marchioni declares that he has no conflict of interest. Diane Julien-David declares that she has no conflict of interest. Christophe Marcic declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Cooper KA, Campos-Giménez E, Jiménez Alvarez D, Nagy K, Donovan JL, Williamson G (2007) Rapid reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the major cocoa polyphenols and inter-relationships of their concentrations in chocolate. J Agric Food Chem 55:2841–2847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kelm MA, Johnson JC, Robbins RJ, Hammerstone JF, Schmitz HH (2006) High-performance liquid chromatography separation and purification of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) procyanidins according to degree of polymerization using a diol stationary phase. J Agric Food Chem 54(5):1571–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jiménez L (2004) Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 79:727–747Google Scholar
- Miller JN, Miller JC (2010) Statistics and chemometrics for analytical chemistry, 6th edn. Pearson Education Limited, Harlow, EnglandGoogle Scholar
- Sall J, Creighton L, Lehman A (2005) JMP ® start statistics, a guide to statistics and data analysis using JMP ® and JMP IN ® software, 3rd edn. SAS Institute Inc./Thomson Brooks/Cole, BelmontGoogle Scholar