A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation was developed for the determination of fluazinam in six vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, tomato, pak choi, spinach, and zucchini) and four fruits (apple, grape, orange, and strawberry), followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Samples were purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) using hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH) as the absorbent. Method validation yielded satisfactory results in terms of the linearity (R2 > 0.99) over a range of 1–500 μg L−1, fortified recovery (81–115%) at three spiked levels, precision (RSDs ≤12%), and sensitivity (limit of quantification (LOQ) of 5 ng g−1). The established method was further applied to determine fluazinam in 120 vegetable samples and 80 fruit samples collected from local markets. The fluazinam residues in most of the samples were below the LOQ, except for two strawberry samples containing 97 and 135 ng g−1. Therefore, the present method was proven to be a reliable and convenient analytical method for monitoring fluazinam residues in vegetable and fruit matrices.
Fluazinam MWCNTs-OH QuEChERS LC-MS/MS
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Compliance with Ethical Standards
This work was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0201009), the Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences “Zhu Pao” Project, and the Shanghai Municipal Agricultural Commission- Young talents growth plans ((2015)-1-34)).
Conflict of Interest
Yubo Li declares that she has no conflict of interest. Hongxia Tang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Kezia C. Black declares that she has no conflict of interest. Maofeng Dong declares that he has no conflict of interest. Weimin Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Weiguo Song declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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