Treatment Optimisation and Sample Preparation for the Evaluation of Lipid Oxidation in Various Meats Through TBARs Assays before Analysis
The aim of this work was to evaluate the critical points while using a TBARs test to measure the lipid oxidation in meat samples; this method includes a distillation method, extracting acid solutions (7% trichloroacetic acid—TCA, 4% perchloric acid—HClO4 and 4 N hydrochloric acid—HCl), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) concentrations and their interactions. The TBARs test method has been evaluated in different animal meat species and in different kinds of meat: fresh, stored, frozen and at different times of defrosting. Moreover, the influence of sample management was evaluated. The best results were obtained after using a distillation and a cold extraction with 7% TCA. The presence of the antioxidant agent (BHT) was essential and was more important in frozen samples than in fresh meat and especially when it was added at negligible concentrations immediately before defrosting, within 2 min of sample withdrawal from the freezer. The general management of the sample requires careful attention, avoiding storage and/or freezing, and lean meat appears to be more susceptible than fatty meat to the oxidative process.
Practical Applications: Optimized TBARs test, including sample management, may represent a line guide to its application such that the results of future studies can be comparable and successfully employed.
KeywordsDistillation Acid extraction Malondialdehyde Lipid oxidation TBARs
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Reactive oxygen species
This work is part of the project “Miglioramento delle carni bovine, suine e avicole attraverso l’utilizzo di sottoprodotti della filiera enologica per fini mangimistici - VINCARN” supported by grant from Rural Development Plan 2007 – 2013 – MISURA 1.2.4 - Regione Abruzzo – Italy. Project manager Prof Giuseppe Martino. The authors are grateful to “Soalca” Srl - Località Cerrani, 13/B - 66010 Pretoro (CH)- Italy for the kind cooperation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Lisa Grotta declares that she has no conflict of interests. Federica Castellani declares that she has no conflict of interests. Fiorentina Palazzo declares that she has no conflict of interests. M. Naceur Haouet declares that he has no conflict of interests. Giuseppe Martino declares that he has no conflict of interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Bertelsen, G., M. Jakobsen, D. Juncher, J. Moller, M. Kroger-Ohlsen, C. Weber, and L.H. Skibsted (2000) Oxidation, shelf-life and stability of meat and meat products. In Proceedings of the 46th international congress of meat science and technology (4.II-L2, pp. 516–524)Google Scholar
- Folch J, Lees M, Sloane Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226(1):497–509Google Scholar
- Martino G, Haouet MN, Reali C, Olivieri O, Valfré F (1995) Coenzyme Q10 and its relationship to other nutritional components of animal products. Italian Journal of Food Science 7(1):19–26Google Scholar
- Martino G, Haouet MN, Marchetti S, Grotta L (2014a) Effect of vitamin E supplementation on egg yolk quality and oxidative stability. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences 2(4):248–255Google Scholar
- Martino G, Mugnai C, Compagnone D, Grotta L, Del Carlo M, Sarti F (2014b) Comparison of performance, meat lipids and oxidative status of pigs from commercial breed and organic crossbreed. Animals 4(2):348–360Google Scholar
- Martino G, Grotta L, Ponzielli V (2014c) Influence of dehydrated Medicago sativa on quality characteristics of Marchigiana beef. Animal Review 1(3):37–44Google Scholar
- Min B, Ahn DU (2005) Mechanism of lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. Food Sci Biotechnol 14(1):152–163 MINIREVIEWGoogle Scholar
- SPSS 9.0 SPSS for Windows 9.0. Chicago: SPSS IncGoogle Scholar
- Yamauchi K, Nagai Y, Ohashi T (1982) Quantitative relationship between alpha-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acids and its connection to development of oxidative rancidity in chicken skeletal muscle. Agric Biol Chem 46(11):2719–2724Google Scholar