Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1765–1776 | Cite as

A New Ultrasonic Thermostatic-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction/Spectrophotometric Method for the Preconcentration and Determination of Bisphenol A in Food, Milk, and Water Samples in Contact with Plastic Products

Article
  • 220 Downloads

Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) contamination in foods and beverages usually occurs as a result of migration from the packages that contain it. In this context, a simple, easy-to-use, and efficient method was developed for the spectrophotometric determination of BPA in food, milk, and water samples in contact with plastic products after preconcentration by ultrasonic-thermostatic-assisted cloud point extraction (UTA-CPE). The method is based on the charge transfer-sensitive complexation of BPA with 3-methylamino-7-dimethylaminophenothiazin-5-ium chloride (AzB) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at pH 8.5 and then extraction of the formed complex into the micellar phase of polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether (Brij 35). The effects of the analytical variables affecting complex formation and extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, a good linear relationship was obtained in the range of 1.2–160 μg L−1 with a detection limit of 0.35 μg L−1. After preconcentration of a sample of 20 mL, a sensitivity enhancement factor was found to be 180. The accuracy and reliability of the method were evaluated by recovery studies from the spiked quality control samples and intraday and interday precision studies. From the studies conducted, the extraction efficiency (E%) was in the range of 94–103% with a relative standard deviation lower than 5.2% (as RSD%, n = 5). The method was successfully applied to the preconcentration and determination of BPA from the selected sample matrices.

Graphical Abstract

Migration of bisphenol A into the foodstuffs

Keywords

Bisphenol A Plastic products Azure B Spectrophotometry Preconcentration Toxicity 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The authors have no financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research.

Conflict of Interest

Emre Yıldırım declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ramazan Gürkan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Nail Altunay declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

On behalf of other authors, informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Biedermann-Brem S, Grob K, Fjeldal P (2008) Release of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles: mechanisms of formation and investigation of worst case scenarios. Eur Food Res Technol 227:1053–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Braunrath R, Podlipna D, Padlesak S, Cichna-Markl M (2005) Determination of bisphenol A in canned foods by immunoaffinity chromatography, HPLC, and fluorescence detection. J Agric Food Chem 53(23):8911–8917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brunera MF, Trindade MA, Zanoni MVB (2010) Detection of bisphenol A on a screen-printed carbon electrode in CTAB micellar medium. Anal Lett 43:2823–2836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chakraborty A, Ali M, Saha SK (2010) Molecular interaction of organic dyes in bulk and confined media. Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 75:1577–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang CM, Chou CC, Lee MR (2005) Determining leaching of bisphenol A from plastic containers by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 539(1):41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cousins IT, Staples CA, Klecka GM, Mackay D (2002) A multimedia assessment of the environmental fate of bisphenol A. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 8(5):1107–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cunha SC, Cunha C, Ferreira AR, Fernandes JO (2012) Determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in canned seafood combining QuEChERS extraction with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 404(8):2453–2463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deceuninck Y, Bichon E, Marchand P, Boquien CY, Legrand A, Boscher C, Le Bizec B (2015) Determination of bisphenol A and related substitutes/analogues in human breast milk using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 407(9):2485–2497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Directive, 2002/657/EC of 12 August 2002 implementing Council Directive 96/23/ EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and interpretation of results. OJ L 221, 17.8.2002, p. 8. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  10. European Commission (EC), Proposal for a new measure on bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials, second quarter 2016.Google Scholar
  11. Fang Z (1993) Flow injection separation and preconcentration, 1st edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallart-Ayala H, Moyano E, Galceran MT (2010) On-line solid phase extraction fast liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of bisphenol A and its chlorinated derivatives in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1217(21):3511–3518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. García-Prieto A, Lunar L, Rubio S, Pérez-Bendito D (2008a) Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates for the microextraction of bisphenol A from canned vegetables and fruits. Anal Chim Acta 617(1):51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. García-Prieto A, Lunar ML, Rubio S, Pérez-Bendito D (2008b) Determination of urinary bisphenol A by coacervative microextraction and liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection. Anal Chim Acta 630(1):19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gatidou G, Thomaidis NS, Stasinakis AS, Lekkas TD (2007) Simultaneous determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, triclosan and bisphenol A in wastewater and sewage sludge by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1138(1):32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hadj YM, Benabdallah T, Reffas H (2015) Cloud point extraction studies on recovery of nickel(II) from highly saline sulfate medium using salicylideneaniline mono-Schiff base chelating extractant. Sep Purif Technol 149:146–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Havelcova M, Kubat P, Nemcova I (2000) Photophysical properties of thiazine dyes in aqueous solution and in micelles. Dyes Pigments 44:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Horwitz W, Britton P, Stuart JC (1998) A simple method for evaluating data from an inter-laboratory study. J AOAC Int 81:1257–1265Google Scholar
  19. Huang W (2005) Voltammetric determination of bisphenol A using a carbon paste electrode based on the enhancement effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Bull Kor Chem Soc 26(10):1560–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kang JH, Kondo F (2003) Determination of bisphenol A in milk and dairy products by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Food Prot 66(8):1439–1443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuo HW, Ding WH (2004) Trace determination of bisphenol A and phytoestrogens in infant formula powders by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1027(1):67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, Henley WE, Depledge M, Wallace RB, Melzer D (2008) Association of urinary bisphenol a concentration with medical disorders and laboratory abnormalities in adults. The Journal of the American Medical Association 300:1303–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li J, Kuang D, Feng Y, Zhang F, Liu M (2011) Voltammetric determination of bisphenol A in food package by a glassy carbon electrode modified with carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Microchim Acta 172(3–4):379–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu X, Ji Y, Zhang H, Liu M (2008) Elimination of matrix effects in the determination of bisphenol a in milk by solid-phase microextraction–high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Additives and Contaminants Part A 25(6):772–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Malone EM, Elliott CT, Kennedy DG, Regan L (2010) Rapid confirmatory method for the determination of sixteen synthetic growth promoters and bisphenol A in bovine milk using dispersive solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 878(15):1077–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mei S, Wu D, Jiang M, Lu B, Lim JM, Zhou YK, Lee YI (2011) Determination of trace bisphenol A in complex samples using selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis. Microchem J 98(1):150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mielke H, Gundert-Remy U (2009) Bisphenol A levels in blood depend on age and exposure. Toxicol Lett 190(1):32–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Najafi M, Khalilzadeh MA, Karimi-Maleh H (2014) A new strategy for determination of bisphenol A in the presence of Sudan I using a ZnO/CNTs/ionic liquid paste electrode in food samples. Food Chem 158:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Němcová I, Dušková M (1992) The interaction of Azure B with surfactants. Collect Czechoslov Chem Commun 57(2):296–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rezaee M, Yamini Y, Shariati S, Esrafili A, Shamsipur M (2009) Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection as a very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of bisphenol A in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1216(9):1511–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sadeghi M, Nematifar Z, Fattahi N, Pirsaheb M, Shamsipur M (2015) Determination of bisphenol A in food and environmental samples using combined solid-phase extraction–dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop followed by HPLC. Food Analytical Methods 1–11Google Scholar
  32. Sánchez-Brunete C, Miguel E, Tadeo JL (2009) Determination of tetrabromobisphenol-A, tetrachlorobisphenol-A and bisphenol-A in soil by ultrasonic assisted extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1216(29):5497–5503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shan D, Mu SL (2001) Electrochemical synthesis and properties of poly (azure B). Chin J Polym Sci 19(4):359–370Google Scholar
  34. Sipponen MH, Pihlajaniemi V, Littunen K, Pastinen O, Laakso S (2014) Determination of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyls and surface area of lignin by cationic dye adsorption. Bioresour Technol 169:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ulusoy Hİ, Gürkan R, Demir Ö, Ulusoy S (2012) Micelle-mediated extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric method for determination of trace cobalt ions in beverage samples. Food Anal Methods 5(3):454–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yang M, Ryu JH, Jeon R, Kang D, Yoo KY (2009) Effects of bisphenol A on breast cancer and its risk factors. Arch Toxicol 83:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yi H, Wu K, Hu S, Cui D (2001) Adsorption stripping voltammetry of phenol of Nafion modified glassy carbon electrode in the presence of surfactants. Talanta 55:1205–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhong S, Tan SN, Ge L, Wang W, Chen J (2011) Determination of bisphenol A and naphthols in river water samples by capillary zone electrophoresis after cloud point extraction. Talanta 85(1):488–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emre Yıldırım
    • 1
  • Ramazan Gürkan
    • 1
  • Nail Altunay
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesCumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey

Personalised recommendations