Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1645–1652 | Cite as

Air-Agitated Cloud-Point Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Determination of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Smoked Sausages

  • Jitlada Vichapong
  • Rodjana Burakham
  • Supalax Srijaranai
Article

Abstract

An air-agitated cloud-point extraction procedure (AACPE), which is a new generation of cloud-point extraction procedure, has been investigated for extraction and preconcentration of four heterocyclic amines (i.e., 2-Amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-Amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-B]indole (harmane)) prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to enhance the extraction efficiency, the mixture of the aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent (Triton X-114) was repeatedly aspirated and dispensed using a syringe. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the AACPE procedure, including type and amount of salt, concentration of Triton X-114, extraction time (or number of air agitations), and centrifugation time, were investigated. No temperature controller was necessary. Under the optimum extraction condition, the linearity was achieved between 0.005 and 1.00 mg kg−1 with the correlation coefficient (R 2) > 0.999. The low limit of detections (LODs) ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg kg−1 with high enrichment factor (EF) more than 80. Matrix-matched calibration has been used for analysis of the target analytes in real samples. The applicability of the developed procedure was successfully evaluated by the determination of the heterocyclic amines in smoked sausage samples.

Keywords

Air-agitated cloud-point extraction procedure Surfactant Heterocyclic amines Smoked sausage samples HPLC 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This Research was financially supported by Mahasaarakham University 2016, the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, the Commission on Higher Education (CHE), and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) and Mahasarakham University, through the TRF Grant for New Scholars (Grant No. TRG5780060).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Jitlada Vichapong declares that she has no conflict of interest. Rodjana Burakham declares that she has no conflict of interest. Supalax Srijaranai declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jitlada Vichapong
    • 1
  • Rodjana Burakham
    • 2
  • Supalax Srijaranai
    • 2
  1. 1.Creative Chemistry and Innovation Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceMahasarakham UniversityMaha SarakhamThailand
  2. 2.Materials Chemistry Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

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