Air-Agitated Cloud-Point Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Determination of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Smoked Sausages
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An air-agitated cloud-point extraction procedure (AACPE), which is a new generation of cloud-point extraction procedure, has been investigated for extraction and preconcentration of four heterocyclic amines (i.e., 2-Amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-Amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-B]indole (harmane)) prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to enhance the extraction efficiency, the mixture of the aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent (Triton X-114) was repeatedly aspirated and dispensed using a syringe. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the AACPE procedure, including type and amount of salt, concentration of Triton X-114, extraction time (or number of air agitations), and centrifugation time, were investigated. No temperature controller was necessary. Under the optimum extraction condition, the linearity was achieved between 0.005 and 1.00 mg kg−1 with the correlation coefficient (R 2) > 0.999. The low limit of detections (LODs) ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg kg−1 with high enrichment factor (EF) more than 80. Matrix-matched calibration has been used for analysis of the target analytes in real samples. The applicability of the developed procedure was successfully evaluated by the determination of the heterocyclic amines in smoked sausage samples.
KeywordsAir-agitated cloud-point extraction procedure Surfactant Heterocyclic amines Smoked sausage samples HPLC
This Research was financially supported by Mahasaarakham University 2016, the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, the Commission on Higher Education (CHE), and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) and Mahasarakham University, through the TRF Grant for New Scholars (Grant No. TRG5780060).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Jitlada Vichapong declares that she has no conflict of interest. Rodjana Burakham declares that she has no conflict of interest. Supalax Srijaranai declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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