Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1745–1754 | Cite as

Ionic Liquid-Based Surfactant Extraction Coupled with Magnetic Dispersive μ-Solid Phase Extraction for the Determination of Phthalate Esters in Packaging Milk Samples by HPLC

  • Meng Wang
  • Fan Yang
  • Le Liu
  • Chunsheng Cheng
  • Yaling Yang


A highly selective sample cleanup procedure combining ionic liquid-based surfactant extraction (ILSE) and magnetic dispersive μ-solid phase extraction (MD-μ-SPE) was triumphantly developed for the synchronously extraction of four phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in packaging milk samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD). In this ionic liquid (IL)-based surfactant method, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM] [PF6]) was used as extraction solvent, anionic surfactant sodium linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was used as auxiliary extraction solvent, and then sodium chloride (NaCl) was mixed to drive phase separation. The synthesized hydrophobic diatomaceous earth-supported Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (DSMNPs) were applied as an efficient adsorbent to retrieve the analyte-containing IL and LAS. Under the optimal extraction situations, good linearity of the approach was obtained in the concentration range from 10 to 1000 ng/mL for target analytes, and the preconcentration process was rapidly accomplished in 5 min. The limits of detection (LODs) based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3) were ranged from 1.42 to 3.57 ng/mL with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) over the range of 1.84–3.56% (n = 5). The above-mentioned method was applied to the trace analysis of four PAEs including benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) in packaging milk samples, and recoveries were between 89.8 and 99.7%.


High-performance liquid chromatography Ionic liquid-based surfactant extraction Magnetic dispersive μ-solid phase extraction Milk samples Phthalate acid esters 



The work was strongly supported by the Analysis and Testing Foundation of Kunming University of Science and Technology and was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Meng Wang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Fan Yang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Le Liu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Chunsheng Cheng declares that he has no conflict of interest. Yaling Yang declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The paper does not contain any researches with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meng Wang
    • 1
  • Fan Yang
    • 1
  • Le Liu
    • 2
  • Chunsheng Cheng
    • 3
  • Yaling Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Life Science and TechnologyKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  2. 2.Yunnan Salt & Salt Chemical Co., Ltd.KunmingChina
  3. 3.Yunnan Province Food Safety Research InstituteKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

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