Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1653–1660 | Cite as

Selenium Speciation in Rice Samples by Magnetic Ionic Liquid-Based Up-and-Down-Shaker-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Coupled to Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

  • Xiaojun Wang
  • Peng Chen
  • Liang Cao
  • Guoliang Xu
  • Siyu Yang
  • Ye Fang
  • Guozhen Wang
  • Xincheng Hong


A novel and sensitive magnetic ionic liquid-based up-and-down-shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MIL-UDSA-DLLME) was developed for the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric measurement of inorganic selenium speciation from various rice matrixes. In the first microextraction step, the magnetic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate, [C4mim][FeCl4]) was selected to extract the complex of Se(IV) and 2,3-diaminonaphthalene from aqueous solution by the assistance of up-and-down-shaker vortex agitator. After the microextraction step, the magnetic ionic liquid containing target analytes was collected at the bottom of the tube by applying an external magnetic field around the test tube. Under the optimized conditions, the method present has low detection limit (0.018 μg L−1), wide linear dynamic range (0.03–10 μg L−1), and good repeatability (<3.0%, n = 10) for Se(IV). The proposed methodology was applied for separation and preconcentration of inorganic selenium in standard reference materials including GBW10010 rice, GBW10043 Liaoning rice, and GBW10045 Hunan rice with satisfactory results. The developed methodology was also successfully used for the speciation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) in different rice samples with the relative recoveries within the acceptable range of 94.9–104.8% for the addition recovery tests.


Magnetic ionic liquid Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction Up-and-down-shaker-assisted Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Selenium speciation 



This work was supported by the Key Project of Research and Development Program of Zhejiang Province under grant number 2015C03G2610002 and the National University Students’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program under grant number 201511481009.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Xiaojun Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Peng Chen declares that she has no conflict of interest. Liang Cao declares that he has no conflict of interest. Guoliang Xu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Siyu Yang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ye Fang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Guozhen Wang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xincheng Hong declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureZhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric PowerHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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