Different Approaches for Digestion, Performance Assessment and Measurement Uncertainty for the Analysis of Cadmium and Lead in Feeds
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Certain feedingstuffs are sources of contamination for animals with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different approaches for sample digestion, performance assessment, and measurement uncertainty for the analysis of Pb and Cd by flame atomic absorption spectrometry were compared. Full method validation, including matrix effect and analytical limits, were assessed. Despite having a lower performance compared to the microwave digestion, dry ashing was a viable alternative for sample digestion, leading to lower operating costs. Interlaboratory validation proved to be a cheaper alternative, instead of the long traditional in-house approach. The method was suitable for routine analysis of several feed samples. There was a greater amount of quantifiable results for Pb, ranging from traces up to high concentrations (7430 ± 930 mg kg-1). Cd was also quantified in some samples, ranging from 0.11 ± 0.01 to 8.71 ± 0.90 mg kg−1. The higher concentrations of both metals were found in mineral mixtures and fish meal.
KeywordsDry digestion Microwave digestion Proficiency testing Top-down approach Traditional approach
We acknowledge Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety for authorizing the use of the FAO-IAG Ringtests data. ICP-MS analyses were carried out at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. We would like to acknowledge Vera Lucia Azzolin Frescura Bascuñan for this facility. We are also grateful to Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa e Inovação de Santa Catarina (FAPESC) for funding this research with fellowships (Grant No. 1683).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Luciano Molognoni declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jaqueline Zarpelon declares that she has no conflict of interest. Leandro Antunes de Sá Ploêncio declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jacson Nascimento dos Santos declares that he has no conflict of interest. Heitor Daguer declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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