Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 2060–2067 | Cite as

Optimization of an Analytical Method for Determination of Pyrene in Smoked Meat Products

  • Muharrem Ince
  • Olcay Kaplan Ince
  • Mehmet Yaman


In the present study, an analytical method was optimized for determination of pyrene by solid-phase extraction in Turkish foodstuffs including chicken and grilled meat samples. In accordance with this purpose, all of the parameters that may affect the signal of pyrene during analysis processes were optimized using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry system. The optimized parameters for column temperature, injection volume, mobile-phase flow rate, and fragmentor potential were found to be 45 °C, 60 μL, 0.6 mL min−1, and 130 V, respectively. The optimized high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method was applied for the determination and evaluation of pyrene in food samples that include chicken and grilled meat. The pyrene amount in meat samples was obtained in the range from 2.3 to 4.4 μg kg−1 for the normal grilled meat and chicken samples and from 12 to 135 μg kg−1 for exceedingly grilled samples. The results show that the concentration of pyrene is significantly dependent on the type of meat sample and cooking source. The limit of detection and quantitation was found to be 0.5 μg L−1 and 1.53 μg L−1, respectively.


Pyrene Solid-phase extraction High-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry Food Grilled meat Chicken 



This research was a part of the Firat University Research Fund with grant no. 1533.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Muharrem Ince declares that he has no conflict of interest. Olcay Kaplan Ince declares that she has no conflict of interest. Mehmet Yaman declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Muharrem Ince declares that he has not received any honoraries from any commercial companies.

Olcay Kaplan Ince declares that she has not received any honoraries from any commercial companies.

Mehmet Yaman declares that he has not received any honoraries from any commercial companies.

Muharrem Ince declares that this article does not contain any studies with human participants or animal subjects.

Olcay Kaplan Ince declares that this article does not contain any studies with human participants or animal subjects.

Mehmet Yaman declares that this article does not contain any studies with human participants or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


  1. (FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department (2013) Meat & meat products [Internet]; [cited 2013 Mar 1]. Available from:
  2. Afolabi OA, Adesulu EA, Oke OL (1983) Polynuclear aromatic-hydrocarbons in some Nigerian preserved fresh-water fish species. J Agric Food Chem 31:1083–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguinaga N, Campillo N, Pilar V, Hernandez-Cordoba M (2007) Determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk and related products using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 596:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alomirah H, Al-Zenki S, Husain A, Sawaya W, Ahmed N, Gevao B, Kannan K (2010) Benzo[a]pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in vegetable oils and fats do not reflect the occurrence of the eight genotoxic PAHs. Food Addit Contam 27:869–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alonge DO (1988) Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAH) determined in Nigerian Kundi (smoke-dried meat). J Sci Food Agric 43:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Camargo CMR, Toledo CMF (2003) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Brazilian vegetables and fruits. Food Control 14:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen YC, Chen BH (2003) Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fumes from fried chicken legs. J Agric Food Chem 51:4162–4167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen BH, Wang CY, Chiu CP (1996) Evaluation of analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meat products by liquid chromatography. J Agr Food Chem 44:2244–2251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December (2006) Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffsGoogle Scholar
  10. Dobrinas S, Birghila S, Coatu V (2008) Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in honey and propolis produced from various flowering trees and plants in Romania. J Food Compos Anal 21:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. European Commission. Commision Regulation No. 208/2005 of 4 February (2005) Amending regulation (EC) no 466/2001 as regards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Off J Eur Union L34:3–5Google Scholar
  12. Goryacheva IY, Beloglazova NV, Eremin SA, Mikhirev DA, Niessner R, Knopp D (2008) Gel-based immunoassay for non-instrumental detection of pyrene in water samples. Talanta 75:517–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ince M, Yaman M (2012) High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of benzo[a]pyrene in grilled meat foods. Asian J Chem 24:3391–3395Google Scholar
  14. (IARC) International Agency for Research on Cancer (1983) Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Part 1, chemical, environmental and experimental data. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum 32:1–453. PMID:6586639Google Scholar
  15. Janoszka B, Warzecha L, Blaszczyk U, Bodzek D (2004) Organic compounds formed in thermally treated high-protein food. Part I: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Acta Chromatogr 14:115–128Google Scholar
  16. Kazerouni N, Sinha R, Hsu CH, Greenberg A, Rothman N (2001) Analysis of 200 food items for benzo[a]pyrene and estimation of its intake in an epidemiologic study. Food Chem Toxicol 39:423–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kot-Wasik A, Dabrowska D, Namiesnik J (2004) Photodegradation and biodegradation study of benzo(a)pyrene in different liquid media. J Photochem Photobiol A-Chem 168:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kuhn K, Nowak B, Behnke A, Seidel A, Lampen A (2009) Effect-based and chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat: a practical food-monitoring approach. Food Addit Contam 26:1104–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ledesma E, Rendueles M, Díaza M (2014) Benzo(a)pyrene penetration on a smoked meat product during smoking time. Food Addit Contam 31:1688–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li CF, Wong JWC, Huiea CW, Choia MMF (2008) On-line flow injection-cloud point preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1214:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lund M, Duedahl-Olesen L, Christensen JH (2009) Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal. Talanta 79:10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martí-Cid R, Llobet JM, Castell V, Domingo JL (2008) Evolution of the dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Catalonia, Spain. Food Chem Toxicol 46:3163–3171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martin D, Ruiz J (2007) Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solid matrixes by solid- phase microextraction coupled to a direct extraction device. Talanta 71:751–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moret S, Conte L, Dean D (1999) Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of smoked fish by means of a fast HPLC/HPLC method. J Agric Food Chem 47:1367–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moret S, Conte LS (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible fats and oils: occurrence and analytical methods. J Chromatogr A 882:245–248Google Scholar
  26. Moret S, Purcaro G, Conte LS (2005) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils from canned foods. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 107:488–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Orecchio S, Ciotti VP, Culotta L (2009) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coffee brew samples: analytical method by GC–MS, profile, levels and sources. Food Chem Toxicol 47:819–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Perelló G, Martí-Cid R, Castell V, Llobet JM, Domingo JL (2009) Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexachlorobenzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various foodstuffs before and after cooking. Food Chem Toxicol 47(4):709–15Google Scholar
  29. Perera F, Tang DL, Whyatt R, Lederman SA, Jedrychowski W (2005) DNA damage from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured by benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts in mothers and newborns from northern Manhattan, the world trade center area, Poland, and China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 14:709–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Purcaro G, Moret S, Conte LS (2009) Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determination in smoked meat. Meat Sci 81:275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reinik M, Tamme T, Roasto M, Juhkam K, Tenno T, Kiis A (2007) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in meat products and estimated PAH intake by children and the general population in Estonia. Food Addit Contam 24(4):429–37Google Scholar
  32. Sadowska-Rociek A, Surma M, Cieślik E (2015) Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coffee and coffee substitutes using dispersive SPE and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 8:109–121. doi: 10.1007/s12161-014-9876-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Speer K, Horstmann P, Steeg E, Kuhn T, Montag A (1990) PAH analysis in vegetable samples. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 191:442–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stumpe-Viksna I, Bartkevics V, Kukare A, Morozovs A (2008) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meat smoked with different types of wood. Food Chem 110:794–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Suranová M, Semanová J, Skláršová B, Simko P (2015) Application of accelerated solvent extraction for simultaneous isolation and pre-cleaning up procedure during determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products. Food Anal Methods 8:1014–1020. doi: 10.1007/s12161-014-9977-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. (USEPA) United States Environmental Protection Agency (1984) Review and evaluation of the evidence for cancer associated with air pollution. EPA-540/5-83-006R. US Environmental Protection Agency, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  37. Veyrand B, Brosseaud A, Sarcher L, Varlet V, Monteau F, Marchand P, Andre F, Le Bizec B (2007) Innovative method for determination of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food and oil samples using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry based on an isotope dilution approach. J Chromatogr A 1149:333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wenzl T, Simon R, Kleiner J, Anklam E (2006) Analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food and the environment needed for new food legislation in the European Union. Trends Anal Chem 25:716–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yoon E, Park K, Lee H, Yang JH, Lee C (2007) Estimation of excess cancer risk on time-weighted lifetime average daily intake of PAHs from food ingestion. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 13:669–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zanieri L, Galvan P, Checchini L, Cincinelli A, Lepri L, Donzelli GP, Bubba MD (2007) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human milk from Italian women: influence of cigarette smoking and residential area. Chemosphere 67:1265–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muharrem Ince
    • 1
  • Olcay Kaplan Ince
    • 2
  • Mehmet Yaman
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical EngineeringMunzur UniversityTunceliTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food EngineeringMunzur UniversityTunceliTurkey
  3. 3.Sciences and Arts Faculty, Department of ChemistryFirat UniversityElaziğTurkey

Personalised recommendations