BioEnergy Research

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 449–455 | Cite as

Evaluation and Modeling of Bioethanol Yield Efficiency from Sweet Sorghum Juice

  • Elham Ebrahimiaqda
  • Kimberly L. Ogden


One of the challenges with using sweet sorghum as an energy crop is that although fermentation of the juice to ethanol does not require enzymes, the juice can easily spoil. One strategy to avoid spoilage is to harvest the juice in the field, place it into a tanker for transport, and add the yeast immediately to initiate the fermentation process to begin during transport. Hence, it is also important to understand how the fermentation process is influenced by pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen, since these parameters would not be “controlled” during transport. A full factorial design was applied to examine and optimize yield efficiency of ethanol production for the fermentation of sweet sorghum juice. Bioethanol yield efficiency was modeled using a linear equation. Under optimal pH (5.5), temperature (28 °C), and dissolved oxygen (0%) conditions, a maximum theoretical yield efficiency of 0.75 was achieved for bioethanol produced from M81E variety of sweet sorghum.


Bioethanol Sweet Sorghum Fermentation Factorial design Yield efficiency 


Funding Information

This work was supported by the USDA Sun Grant No.09W-T020.


  1. 1.
    Conti JJ, Holtberg PD, Beamon JA, Schaal AM, Sweetnam GE, Kydes AS (2010) Annual energy outlook 2010: with projections to 2035. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Flugge M, Lewandrowski J, Rosenfeld J, Boland C, Hendrickson T, Jaglo K, Kolansky S, Moffroid K, Riley-Gilbert M, Pape D (2017) A life-cycle analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions of corn-based ethanol. Report prepared by ICF under USDA Contract No. AG-3142-D-16-0243. January 30, 2017Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang M, Han J, Dunn JB, Cai H, Elgowainy A (2012) Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use. Environ Res Lett 7(4).
  4. 4.
    Mathur S, Umakanth AV, Tonapi VA, Sharma R, Sharma MK (2017) Sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock: recent advances and available resources. Biotechnol Biofuels 10:146. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alvey SBM, Neumann G, Buerkert A (2001) Cereal/legume rotations affect chemical properties and biological activities in two West African soils. Plant Soil 231:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Almodares A, Mostafafi Darany SM (2006) Effects of planting date and time of nitrogen application on yield and sugar content of sweet sorghum. J Environ Biol 27(3):601–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wiedenfeld RP (1984) Nutrient requirements and use efficiency by sweet sorghum. Energy in Agriculture 3:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zegada-Lizarazu W, Monti A (2012) Are we ready to cultivate sweet sorghum as a bioenergy feedstock? A review on field management practices. Biomass Bioenergy 40:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ebrahimiaqda E, Ogden KL (2017) Simulation and cost analysis of distillation and purification step in production of anhydrous ethanol from sweet sorghum. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5(8):6854–6862. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kundiyana DK, Bellmer DD, Huhnke RL, Wilkins MR, Claypool PL (2010) Influence of temperature, pH and yeast on in-field production of ethanol from unsterilized sweet sorghum juice. Biomass Bioenergy 34(10):1481–1486. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang w WJ, Tan JX, Sun JF, Mou JL (2011) Optimization of ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice using response surface methodology. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 33:1139–1146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu R, Shen F (2008) Impacts of main factors on bioethanol fermentation from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CICC 1308). Bioresour Technol 99(4):847–854. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weather Underground. (2017) The Weather Company, LLC. 2017
  14. 14.
    Teetor VH, Duclos DV, Wittenberg ET, Younga KM, Chawhuaymakc J, Riley MR, Ray DT (2011) Effects of planting date on sugar and ethanol yield of sweet sorghum grown in Arizona. Ind Crops Prod 34:1293–1300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Broadhead DM, Freeman KC, Zummo N (1981) 'M 81E'—A new variety of sweet sorghum. USDA,ARS. Meridian,MissGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Teetor VH, Schmalzel C, Ray DT (2017) Growing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] moench) in clumps potentially reduces lodging in the arid-southwestern United States. Ind Crops Prod 107:458–462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Borzani W (2006) Batch ethanol fermentation: the correlation between the fermentation efficiency and the biomass initial concentration depends on what is considered as produced ethanol. Braz J Microbiol 37:87–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Akin H, Brandam C, Meyer X-M, Strehaiano P (2008) A model for pH determination during alcoholic fermentation of a grape must by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 47(11):1986–1993. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coote N, Kirsop BH (1976) Factors responsible for the decrease in pH during beer fermentations. J Inst Brew 82:149–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gray KA, Zhao L, Emptage M (2006) Bioethanol. Curr Opin Chem Biol 10(2):141–146. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Le Man H, Behera SK, Park HS (2010) Optimization of operational parameters for ethanol production from Korean food waste leachate. Int J Environ Sci Tech 7(1):157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ma H, Wang Q, Zhang W, Xu W, Zou D (2008) Optimization of the medium and process parameters for ethanol production from kitchen garbage by Zymomonas mobilis. Int J Green Energy 5(6):480–490. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rivera ECCA, Atala DIP, Maugeri F, Maciel MRW, Filho RM (2006) Evaluation of optimization techniques for parameter estimation: application to ethanol fermentation considering the effect of temperature. Process Biochem 41(7):1682–1687. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Le HD, Thanonkeo P, Le VV (2013) Impact of high temperature on ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus immobilized on banana leaf sheath pieces. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 171(3):806–816. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nagodawithana TW, Castellano C, KH S (1974) Effect of dissolved oxygen, temperature, initial cell count, and sugar concentration on the viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in rapid fermentations. Appl Microbiol 28(3):383–391PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Verbelen PJ, Depraetere SA, Winderickx J, Delvaux FR, Delvaux F (2009) The influence of yeast oxygenation prior to brewery fermentation on yeast metabolism and the oxidative stress response. FEMS Yeast Res 9(2):226–239. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations