Transition in Gender Ideology and Women Migrant’s Empowerment in Germany and Sweden: Inclusion of ‘Gender’ and ‘Integration’ Needs in Relevant Policies/Legislation

Abstract

This study reviews the inclusion of ‘gender’ and ‘integration’ in the policies and legislation designed to facilitate the integration of women migrants and their impacts on migrant’s gender ideology in two European legislative regimes: Germany and Sweden. The study is conducted in four steps; (1) a thematic analysis of twenty conventions and recommendations of the UN, ILO, and EU, (2) latent analysis of ten policies/pieces of legislation, (3) survey with women migrants, and (4) in-depth interviews with experts. This study finds that existing legal frameworks do not fully comply with the international legal frame to meet women migrant’s ‘gender’ and ‘integration’ needs, although the situation seems relatively better in Germany than in Sweden. It is found that migration has brought positive changes in gender ideology for migrants in many arenas, except one. Migrant’s satisfaction with legal measures also contributes to this transition. The study summarizes three groups of barriers to the transformation of gender ideology for both countries. These are; agency-specific, institution-specific, and state-specific.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Gender Development Index and Gender Gap Index.

  2. 2.

    Relevant question measures women migrant’s religious practices such as saying prayer in a day (1–5 or more), or visiting Church, Temple, other religious shrines etc. in a day.

  3. 3.

    Two questions are asked that do not require religion-specific details because any religious narrative can construct enlightened or traditional religious beliefs of followers towards women’s labor market participation.

  4. 4.

    Source: [28, 29, 94, 95, 98], HELMPCOD [68], [30, 45, 47, 97].

  5. 5.

    www.berufliche-anerkennung.de.

  6. 6.

    https://www.netzwerk-iq.de/network-iq-start-page.html.

  7. 7.

    From Germany: Program Integration through Qualification and From Sweden; Andersson and Weinar [3].

  8. 8.

    See https://utbildningsbedomning-en.uhr.se/auue.

  9. 9.

    Source: [27, 31, 45, 46, 95, 97].

  10. 10.

    See https://www.migrationsverket.se/English/Private-individuals.html.

  11. 11.

    Source: [19, 29, 47, 69,70,71, 92, 93, 95, 96].

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Acknowledgements

This is an outcome paper of the scholarship awarded by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation, Germany to implement a project titles ‘Challenges of Integration for Immigrant Women in Europe: Nexus between Gender Mainstreaming of Public Policies/Legislation and Gender Ideology’ (Az. 40.17.0.012PO).

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Correspondence to Muhammad Wajid Tahir.

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Tahir, M.W. Transition in Gender Ideology and Women Migrant’s Empowerment in Germany and Sweden: Inclusion of ‘Gender’ and ‘Integration’ Needs in Relevant Policies/Legislation. Gend. Issues 37, 261–289 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12147-019-09247-x

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Keywords

  • Gender ideology
  • Migration
  • Policy/legislation
  • Migration
  • Empowerment