The roles of emotional intelligence and adversity quotient in life satisfaction

Abstract

Few studies have investigated how the specific facets of trait emotional intelligence (EI) and adversity quotient (AQ) affect individuals’ general life satisfaction. The present study identified three facets of trait EI and five of AQ and explored how each facet relates to individuals’ general life satisfaction. Participants were 256 Chinese adults who completed four questionnaires—the Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test, the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, the GRIT scale, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. After validating the scales, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that one trait EI component (regulation of emotion) and two AQ facets (tenacity and optimism) significantly and positively predicted individuals’ general life satisfaction. These results suggest that understanding the role of their own and others’ emotions, to be tenacious, and to cultivate positive attitudes and relationships might be a key to promoting their general life satisfaction. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the relationships between trait EI and life satisfaction and AQ and life satisfaction, and how specific trait EI and AQ facets relate to individuals’ life satisfaction.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Afolabi, O. A., & Balogun, A. G. (2017). Impacts of psychological security, emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on undergraduates’ life satisfaction. Psychological Thought, 10(2), 247–261. https://doi.org/10.5964/psyct.v10i2.226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Allen, J. A., Diefendorff, J. M., & Ma, Y. (2014). Differences in emotional labor across cultures: A comparison of Chinese and US service workers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(1), 21–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Amdurer, E., Boyatzis, R. E., Saatcioglu, A., Smith, M. L., & Taylor, S. N. (2014). Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1447. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01447.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Anwar, M, C., & Fitriani, S. (2020). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal communication: Their relationship on primary school teachers’ adversity quotient. In International Proceedings Conferences Series (pp. 55-67). https://doi.org/10.22236/ie.v1i1.137.

  5. Arslan, G. (2019). Mediating role of self–esteem and resilience in the association between social exclusion and life satisfaction among adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 151, 109514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bayram, N., Aytac, S., Aytac, M., Sam, N., & Bilgel, N. (2012). Poverty, social exclusion, and life satisfaction: A study from Turkey. Journal of Poverty, 16(4), 375–391. https://doi.org/10.1080/10875549.2012.720656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bellali, T., Manomenidis, G., Meramveliotaki, E., Minasidou, E., & Galanis, P. (2020). The impact of anxiety and depression in the quality of life and psychological well-being of Greek hematological cancer patients on chemotherapy. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 25(2), 201–213. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2019.1695864.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Berlin, M., & Connolly, F. F. (2019). The association between life satisfaction and affective well-being. Journal of Economic Psychology, 73, 34–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2019.04.010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Beutel, M. E., Glaesmer, H., Wiltink, J., Marian, H., & Brähler, E. (2010). Life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and resilience across the life span of men. The Aging Male, 13(1), 32–39. https://doi.org/10.3109/13685530903296698.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Block, J., & Turula, E. (1963). Identification, ego control, and adjustment. Child Development, 34(4), 945–953. https://doi.org/10.2307/1126537.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36(2), 129–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Boyce, C. J., Brown, G. D. A., & Moore, S. C. (2010). Money and happiness: Rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 21(4), 471–475. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610362671.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Brackett, M. A., Palomera, R., Mojsa-Kaja, J., Reyes, M. R., & Salovey, P. (2010). Emotion-regulation ability, burnout, and job satisfaction among British secondary-school teachers. Psychology in the Schools, 47(4), 406–417.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Brailovskaia, J., Schönfeld, P., Kochetkov, Y., & Margraf, J. (2019). What does migration mean to us? USA and Russia: Relationship between migration, resilience, social support, happiness, life satisfaction, depression, anxiety and stress. Current Psychology, 38(2), 421–431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9627-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In W. J. Lonner & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Field methods in cross-cultural research (pp. 137–164). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bucciol, A., & Zarri, L. (2020). Wounds that time can’t heal: Life satisfaction and exposure to traumatic events. Journal of Economic Psychology, 76, 102241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Campbell, A. (1981). The sense of well-being in America: Recent patterns and trends. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Celik, M., & Caglayan, N. İ. (2019). Resilience as the predictor of divorcees’ life satisfaction. Social Science Quarterly, 100(6), 2078–2093.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Chin, P.-L., & Hung, M.-L. (2013). Psychological contract breach and turnover intention: The moderating roles of adversity quotient and gender. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 41(5), 843–859. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2013.41.5.843.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Clark, K. N., & Malecki, C. K. (2019). Academic grit scale: Psychometric properties and associations with achievement and life satisfaction. Journal of School Psychology, 72, 49–66.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.10113.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Credé, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2017). Much ado about grit: A meta-analytic synthesis of the grit literature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113(3), 492–511.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. D’Ambrosio, C., Jäntti, M., & Lepinteur, A. (2020). Money and happiness: Income, wealth and subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 148(1), 47–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Daig, I., Herschbach, P., Lehmann, A., Knoll, N., & Decker, O. (2009). Gender and age differences in domain-specific life satisfaction and the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms: A general population survey from Germany. Quality of Life Research, 18(6), 669–678.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Datu, J. A. D., Valdez, J. P. M., & King, R. B. (2016). Perseverance counts but consistency does not! Validating the short grit scale in a collectivist setting. Current Psychology, 35(1), 121–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. De Sousa, R. (1987). The rationality of emotion. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Dewi, Y. S., Hargono, R., & Tristiana, R. D. (2019). Recovery self-efficacy, coping strategy, adversity quotient and resilience among intensive care unit nurses in Indonesia. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 10(10), 2087–2092.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542–575. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Diener, E., & Diener, M. (2009). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. In E. Diener (Ed.), Culture and well-being (pp. 71–91). Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2352-0_4.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Diener, E., Sandvik, E., & Pavot, W. G. (1990). Happiness is the frequency, not intensity, of positive versus negative affect. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), The social psychology of subjective well-being (pp. 119–139). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Diener, E., Colvin, C. R., Pavot, W. G., & Allman, A. (1991). The psychic costs of intense positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(3), 492–503. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.3.492.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Disabato, D. J., Goodman, F. R., & Kashdan, T. B. (2019). Is grit relevant to well-being and strengths? Evidence across the globe for separating perseverance of effort and consistency of interests. Journal of Personality, 87(2), 194–211.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087–1101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1087.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Duran, F., Bishopp, D., & Woodhams, J. (2019). Relationships between psychological contract violation, stress and well-being in firefighters. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 12(3), 120–133. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJWHM-09-2018-0114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Edward, K. L., & Warelow, P. (2005). Resilience: When coping is emotionally intelligent. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 11(2), 101–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Effendi, M., Matore, E. M., & Khairani, A. Z. (2016). Correlation between adversity quotient (AQ) with IQ, EQ and SQ among polytechnic students using rasch model. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(47), 1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Eid, M., & Diener, E. (2001). Norms for experiencing emotions in different cultures: Inter- and intranational differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), 869–885. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.81.5.869.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Garcia, D., & Moradi, S. (2013). The affective temperaments and well-being: Swedish and Iranian adolescents’ life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(2), 689–707. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9349-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Garland, R. (1991). The mid-point on a rating scale: Is it desirable? Marketing Bulletin, 2(1), 66–70.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Grant, N., Wardle, J., & Steptoe, A. (2009). The relationship between life satisfaction and health behavior: A cross-cultural analysis of young adults. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16(3), 259–268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-009-9032-x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Hafiz, S., & Chouhan, M. (2015). Impact of emotional intelligence on life satisfaction of university employees. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(3), 315–317.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Hamama, L., Ronen, T., Shachar, K., & Rosenbaum, M. (2013). Links between stress, positive and negative affect, and life satisfaction among teachers in special education schools. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(3), 731–751.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(4), 731–739.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Holinka, C. (2015). Stress, emotional intelligence, and life satisfaction in college students. College Student Journal, 49(2), 300–311.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Iyanda A, O. (2018). Organisational Grit: Succeeding with Adversity Quotient [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://brootc.com/our-blog/leadership/what-is-your-adversity-quotient-olukunle-iyanda/

  47. Jiang, Y., Zhang, J., Ming, H., Huang, S., & Lin, D. (2019). Stressful life events and well-being among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents: The moderating role of the stress mindset and differences between genders. Journal of Adolescence, 74, 24–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.05.005.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Jin, B., & Kim, J. (2017). Grit, basic needs satisfaction, and subjective well-being. Journal of Individual Differences, 38(1), 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000219.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Johnson, W., & Krueger, R. F. (2006). How money buys happiness: Genetic and environmental processes linking finances and life satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(4), 680–691. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.4.680.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Kööts-Ausmees, L., Realo, A., & Allik, J. (2013). The relationship between life satisfaction and emotional experience in 21 European countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(2), 223–244. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022112451054.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Kousha, M., & Mohseni, N. (1997). Predictors of life satisfaction among urban Iranian women: An exploratory analysis. Social Indicators Research, 40(3), 329–357. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006894525035.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Kuppens, P., Realo, A., & Diener, E. (2008). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgment across nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(1), 66–75. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.95.1.66.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Lazarus, R., & S., & Lazarus, R, S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Li, J., Fang, M., Wang, W., Sun, G., & Cheng, Z. (2018). The influence of grit on life satisfaction: Self-esteem as a mediator. Psychologica Belgica, 58(1), 51–66.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Liang, D., Xu, D., Xia, L., & Ma, X. (2020). Life satisfaction in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants: Investigating the roles of self-esteem and affect balance. Journal of Community Psychology, 48(5), 1651–1659. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22360.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Liu, Y., Wang, Z., & Lü, W. (2013). Resilience and affect balance as mediators between trait emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(7), 850–855.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Mahmoud, J. S. R., Staten, R. T., Hall, L. A., & Lennie, T. A. (2012). The relationship among young adult college students’ depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(3), 149–156. https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2011.632708\.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Marum, G., Clench-Aas, J., Nes, R. B., & Raanaas, R. K. (2014). The relationship between negative life events, psychological distress and life satisfaction: A population-based study. Quality of Life Research, 23(2), 601–611.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Matore, M. E. E. M., Khairani, A. Z., & Razak, N. A. (2015). The influence of AQ on the academic achievement among Malaysian polytechnic students. International Education Studies, 8(6), 69–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–31). New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  61. McGinnis, D. (2018). Resilience, life events, and well-being during midlife: Examining resilience subgroups. Journal of Adult Development, 25(3), 198–221. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10804-018-9288-y.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. Meeks, S., & Murrell, S. A. (2001). Contribution of education to health and life satisfaction in older adults mediated by negative affect. Journal of Aging and Health, 13(1), 92–119. https://doi.org/10.1177/089826430101300105.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Mehta, P., & Mehta, B. (2015). Emotional intelligence in relation to satisfaction with life: A study of govt. secondary school teachers. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(1), 98–102.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Melin, R., Fugl-Meyer, K. S., & Fugl-Meyer, A. R. (2003). Life satisfaction in 18-to 64-year-old swedes: In relation to education, employment situation, health and physical activity. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 35(2), 84–90.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Nikam, V. B., & Uplane, M. M. (2013). Adversity quotient and defense mechanism of secondary school students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 1(4), 303–308.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Oriol, X., Miranda, R., Bazán, C., & Benavente, E. (2020). Distinct routes to understand the relationship between dispositional optimism and life satisfaction: Self-control and grit, positive affect, gratitude, and meaning in life. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 907.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Palczyńska, M., & Świst, K. (2018). Personality, cognitive skills and life outcomes: Evidence from the polish follow-up study to PIAAC. Large-scale Assessments in Education, 6(1), 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40536-018-0056-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Palmer, B., Donaldson, C., & Stough, C. (2002). Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1091–1100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Park, J., Joshanloo, M., & Scheifinger, H. (2020). Predictors of life satisfaction in Australia: A study drawing upon annual data from the Gallup world poll. Australian Psychologist, 55(4), 375–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Parvathy, U., & Praseeda, M. (2014). Relationship between adversity quotient and academic problems among student teachers. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(11), 23–26.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioural validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European Journal of Personality, 17(1), 39–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Petrides, K. V., Pita, R., & Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional intelligence in personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology, 98(2), 273–289.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Puspitacandri, A. (2020). The effects of intelligence, emotional, spiritual and adversity quotient on the graduates quality in Surabaya shipping polytechnic. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(3), 1075–1087.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Rezaei, A., & Jeddi, E. M. (2020). Relationship between wisdom, perceived control of internal states, perceived stress, social intelligence, information processing styles and life satisfaction among college students. Current Psychology, 39(3), 927–933.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185–211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Samman, E., & Santos, M. E. (2013). Poor and dissatisfied? Income poverty, poverty transitions and life satisfaction in Chile. Journal of Poverty and Social Justice, 21(1), 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1332/175982713X664038.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(2), 167–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Segrin, C., Badger, T., Dorros, S. M., Meek, P., & Lopez, A. M. (2007). Interdependent anxiety and psychological distress in women with breast cancer and their partners. Psycho-Oncology: Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Cancer, 16(7), 634–643. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Shamai, M., & Kimhi, S. (2006). Exposure to threat of war and terror, political attitudes, stress, and life satisfaction among teenagers in Israel. Journal of Adolescence, 29(2), 165–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2005.03.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Siphai, S. (2015). Influences of moral, emotional and adversity quotient on good citizenship of Rajabhat university's students in the northeast of Thailand. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(17), 2413–2421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Solomon, R. C. (1993). The passions: Emotions and the meaning of life. Hackett Publishing.

  82. Stoltz, P. G. (1997). Adversity quotient: Turning obstacles into opportunities. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Strine, T. W., Chapman, D. P., Balluz, L. S., Moriarty, D. G., & Mokdad, A. H. (2008). The associations between life satisfaction and health-related quality of life, chronic illness, and health behaviors among US community-dwelling adults. Journal of Community Health, 33(1), 40–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-007-9066-4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Suryadi, B., & Santoso, T. I. (2017). Self-efficacy, adversity quotient, and students’ achievement in mathematics. International Education Studies, 10(10), 12–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Suryaningrum, C. W., Purwanto, P., Subanji, S., Susanto, H., Ningtyas, Y. D. W. K., & Irfan, M. (2020). Semiotic reasoning emerges in constructing properties of a rectangle: A study of adversity quotient. Journal on Mathematics Education, 11(1), 95–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Temiz, Z. T., & Comert, I. T. (2018). The relationship between life satisfaction, attachment styles, and psychological resilience in university students. Düşünen Adam: Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 31(3), 274–283.

  87. Tian, Y., & Fan, X. (2014). Adversity quotients, environmental variables and career adaptability in student nurses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 251–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.07.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Triandis, H. C., Botempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 323–338.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Urquijo, I., Extremera, N., & Villa, A. (2016). Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being in graduates: The mediating effect of perceived stress. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 11(4), 1241–1252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-015-9432-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Utsey, S. O., Ponterotto, J. G., Reynolds, A. L., & Cancelli, A. A. (2000). Racial discrimination, coping, life satisfaction, and self-esteem among African Americans. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(1), 72–80. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb02562.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Wendt, G. W., Costa, A. B., Poletto, M., Cassepp-Borges, V., Dellaglio, D. D., & Koller, S. H. (2019). Stressful events, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect in youth at risk. Children and Youth Services Review, 102, 34–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.04.028.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Whitelock, C. F., Lamb, M. E., & Rentfrow, P. J. (2013). Overcoming trauma: Psychological and demographic characteristics of child sexual abuse survivors in adulthood. Clinical Psychological Science, 1(4), 351–362. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702613480136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Woo, H. Y., & Song, J. H. (2015). The factors affecting the adversity quotient of nurses and office workers. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, 7(5), 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Young, M. H., Miller, B. C., Norton, M. C., & Hill, E. J. (1995). The effect of parental supportive behaviors on life satisfaction of adolescent offspring. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 813–822.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Yu, X., & Zhang, J. (2007). Factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC) with Chinese people. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35(1), 19–30. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2007.35.1.19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement Statement

We highly appreciated the editors and the reviewers’ constructive suggestion.

Data Sharing Statement

The datasets analyzed in the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Funding

No funding was received for conducting this study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yuyang Zhao.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

This manuscript has not been published and is not under consideration by another journal. All study participants provided informed consent, and the study design was approved by the appropriate ethics review board. Original data for the manuscript is available. I have read and understand your journal’s policies, and I believe that neither the manuscript nor the study violates any of these. There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

ESM 1

(DOCX 1918 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhao, Y., Sang, B. & Ding, C. The roles of emotional intelligence and adversity quotient in life satisfaction. Curr Psychol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01398-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Trait emotional quotient
  • Adversity quotient
  • Life satisfaction
  • Grit
  • Resilience