Reflection on success in promoting authenticity and proactive behavior: A two-wave study

Abstract

Although reflection is believed to play a key role in promoting learning and performance, few studies have examined its effects on success and failure on well-being and positive behavioral outcomes. Thus, this study aims to explore the influence of reflection on success and failure on proactive behavior mediated through work authenticity, using a two-wave survey of employees from a municipal office in Japan (n = 219). The results of structural equation modeling indicated that reflection on success directly and indirectly enhanced proactive behavior through work authenticity, while reflection on failure had no significant influence on both work authenticity and proactive behavior. This study thus contributes to research on reflection and positive psychology by identifying the role of reflection on success in promoting employees’ well-being and positive behavioral outcomes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

References

  1. Aguinis, H., Gotfredson, R. K., & Joo, H. (2012). Delivering effective performance feedback: The strengths-based approach. Business Horizons, 55, 105–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2011.10.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Austin, D. B. (2006). Building on a foundation of strengths. Educational Horizons, 84(3), 176–182.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job demands - resources theory. In P. Y. Chen & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Work and wellbeing: Wellbeing: A complete reference guide, Volume III (pp. 37–64). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118539415.wbwell019.

  5. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job demands-resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 273–285. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000056.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Bouskila-Yam, O., & Kluger, A. N. (2011). Strength-based performance appraisal and goal setting. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 137–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.09.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. De Freitas, J., Sarkissian, H., Newman, G. E., Grossmann, I., De Brigard, F., Luco, A., & Knobe, J. (2018). Consistent belief in a good true self in misanthropes and three interdependent cultures. Cognitive Science, 42, 134–160. https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12505.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087–1101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1087.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Edmondson, A. C. (2004). Learning from mistakes is easier said than done: Group and organizational influences on the detection and correction of human error. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(1), 66–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886304263849.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Emmerich, A. I., & Rigotti, T. (2017). Reciprocal relations between work-related authenticity and intrinsic motivation, work ability and depressivity: A two-wave study. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1–53.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Fritz, C., & Sonnentag, S. (2006). Recovery, well-being, and performance-related outcomes: The role of workload and vacation experiences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 936–945. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.936.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Fuller, B., Marler, L. E., Hester, K., & Otondo, R. F. (2015). Leader reactions to follower proactive behavior: Giving credit when credit is due. Human Relations, 68(6), 879–898. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726714548235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Grant, A. M., & Ashford, S. J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 3–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2008.04.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Grant, A. M., Parker, S., & Collins, C. (2009). Getting credit for proactive behavior: Supervisor reactions depend on what you value and how you feel. Personnel Psychology, 62, 31–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.01128.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Gray, D. E. (2007). Facilitating management learning developing critical reflection through reflective tools. Management Learning, 38(5), 495–517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Griffin, M. A., Neal, A., & Parker, S. K. (2007). A new model of work role performance: Positive behavior in uncertain and interdependent context. Academy of Management Journal, 50(2), 327–347. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2007.24634438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Guo, Y., Lam, L., Plummer, V., Cross, W., & Zhang, J. (2019). A WeChat-based “Three Good Things” positive psychotherapy for the improvement of job performance and self-efficacy in nurses with burnout symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nursing Management, 28, 480–487. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12927.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Harter, S. (2002). Authenticity. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 382–394). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching & Teacher Education, 11(1), 33–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-051X(94)00012-U.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Hiemstra, D., & Van Yperen, N. W. (2015). The effects of strength-based versus deficit-based self-regulated learning strategies on students’ effort intentions. Motivation and Emotion, 39(5), 656–668. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-015-9488-8.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Hu, C., Kumar, S., Huang, J., & Ratnavelu, K. (2017). Disinhibition of negative true self for identity reconstructions in cyberspace: Advancing self-discrepancy theory for virtual setting. PLoS One, 12(4), e0175623. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175623.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Jawahar, I. M. (2010). The mediating role of appraisal feedback reactions on the relationship between rater feedback-related behaviors and ratee performance. Group & Organization Management, 35(4), 494–526. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601110378294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Kember, D., Leung, D. Y. P., Jones, A., Loke, A. Y., Mckay, J., Singlair, K., Tse, H., Webb, C., Wong, F. K. Y., Wong, M., & Yeung, E. (2000). Development of a questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 25(4), 381–395. https://doi.org/10.1080/713611442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Kluger, A. N., & Nir, D. (2010). The feedforward interview. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 235–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.08.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Korthagen, F. A. J. (2005). The organization in balance reflection and intuition as complementary processes. Management Learning, 36(3), 371–387.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Lenton, A. P., Bruder, M., Slabu, L., & Sedikides, C. (2013). How does "being real" feel? The experience of state authenticity. Journal of Personality, 81(3), 276–289. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00805.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Linley, P. A., Nielsen, K. M., Gillett, R., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). Using signature strengths in pursuit of goals: Effects on goal progress, need satisfaction, and well-being, and implications for coaching psychologists. International Coaching Psychology Review, 5(1), 6–15.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Luthans, F. (2002). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(6), 695–706. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227–238. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.56.3.227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Metin, U. B., Taris, T. W., Peeters, M. C. W., Van Beek, I., & Van den Bosch, R. (2016). Authenticity at work: A job-demands resources perspective. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(2), 483–499.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Mezirow, J. (1990). How critical reflection triggers transformative earning. In J. Mezirow (Ed.), Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning (pp. 1–6). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Mongrain, M., & Anselmo-Matthews, T. (2012). Do positive psychology exercises work? A replication of Seligman et al. (2005). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 382–389. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21839.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Parker, S. K., & Collins, C. G. (2010). Taking stock: Integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors. Journal of Management, 36(3), 633–662. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308321554.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Parker, S. K., Wang, Y., & Liao, J. (2019). When is proactivity wise? A review of factors that influence the individual outcomes of proactive behavior. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 6, 221–248. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012218-015302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Proctor, C., Maltby, J., & Linley, P. A. (2011). Strengths use as a predictor of well-being and health-related quality of life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 153–169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-009-9181-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Reason, J. (1990). Human error. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Reis, G., Trullen, J., & Story, J. (2016). Perceived organizational culture and engagement: The mediating role of authenticity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(6), 1091–1105. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-05-2015-0178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Reynolds, M. (1998). Reflection and critical reflection in management learning. Management Learning, 29(2), 183–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Sedikides, C., Slabu, L., Lenton, A., & Thomaes, S. (2017). State authenticity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(6), 521–525. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721417713296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Crant, J. M. (2001). What do proactive people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54, 845–874. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00234.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Seligman, M. E. P., Ernst, R. M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: Positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Review of Education, 35(3), 293–311.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Sjöstrand, M., & Juth, N. (2014). Authenticity and psychiatric disorder: Does autonomy of personal preferences matter? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 17, 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-013-9509-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Strauss, K., Parker, S. K., & O'Shea, D. (2017). When does proactivity have a cost? Motivation at work moderates the effects of proactive work behavior on employee job strain. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 100, 15–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.02.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Svejenova, S. (2005). The path with the heart: Creating the authentic career. Journal of Management Studies, 42(5), 947–974. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00528.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Tedeschi, J. T. (1986). Private and public experiences and the self. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Public self and private self (pp. 1–17). New York: Springer-Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Thomas, J. P., Whitman, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Employee proactivity in organizations: A comparative meta-analysis of emergent proactive constructs. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 275–300. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317910X502359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Van den Bosch, R., & Taris, T. W. (2014). Authenticity at work: Development and validation of an individual authenticity measure at work. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Van Woerkom, M., Mostert, K., Els, C., Bakker, A. B., de Beer, L., & Rothmann, S. (2016). Strengths use and deficit correction in organizations: Development and validation of a questionnaire. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(6), 960–975. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2016.1193010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Vess, M., Schlegel, R. J., Hicks, J. A., & Arndt, J. (2014). Guilty, but not ashamed: "True" self-conceptions influence affective responses to personal shortcomings. Journal of Personality, 82(3), 213–224. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12046.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Waterman, A. S. (2013). The humanistic psychology–positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations. American Psychologist, 68(3), 124–133. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Welch, D., Grossaint, K., Reid, K., & Walker, C. (2014). Strengths-based leadership development: Insights from expert coaches. Consulting Psychology Journal, 66(1), 20–37. https://doi.org/10.1037/cpb0000002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. West, M. A. (2000). Reflexivity, revolution and innovation in work teams. In M. M. Beyerlein, D. A. Johnson, & S. T. Beyerlein (Eds.), Product development teams (Vol. 5, pp. 1–29). Stamford CT: JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (grant number 18 K01744).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Makoto Matsuo.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

I have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards for research involving human participants.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants for being included in this study.

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

The author declares that there are no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix

Appendix

Table 4 The scales of reflection on success and failures

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Matsuo, M. Reflection on success in promoting authenticity and proactive behavior: A two-wave study. Curr Psychol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01352-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Reflection
  • Success
  • Failure
  • Work authenticity
  • Proactive behavior