Theory and intervention equivalence and bias: New constructs and adaptation of the systematic test of equivalence procedure


The importance of cross-cultural validity, equivalence, and bias when engaged in cross-cultural and cultural activities (e.g., research, practice, training, supervision, consultation, teaching) are discussed. Two new forms of equivalence (Theory; Intervention) and bias (Theory; Intervention) also are introduced, as is an adaptation of the Systematic Test of Equivalence Procedure (STEP; Gerstein, L.H. 2018. Systematic test of equivalence procedure: New method to investigate cross-cultural validity. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 62, 278–293), which was originally created to enhance equivalence and reduce bias when conducting cross-cultural or cultural studies. Assuming future research supports the validity and relevance of the modified STEP approach, this strategy could offer researchers, clinicians, and others a tool to examine theory and intervention equivalence and bias in their professional activities. Recommendations for conducting projects to investigate the validity of employing STEP when examining the equivalence or bias of existing and future theories and intervention strategies are presented as well.

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Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.


  1. 1.

    A Likert response format was assumed to be a relevant and valid approach to gather responses from the target experts and/or participants. When developing this step for a STEP study, the investigator must first establish the most appropriate response format to use.


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Gerstein, L.H. Theory and intervention equivalence and bias: New constructs and adaptation of the systematic test of equivalence procedure. Curr Psychol (2021).

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  • Cross-cultural validity
  • Equivalence
  • Bias
  • Systematic test of equivalence procedure