Leisure and subjective well-being of parents of Korean transnational-split families


This study examined leisure and subjective well-being (SWB) of Korean transnational-split families (KTSF) who live in Korea and the U.S. Using data collected from an online survey, hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test seven hypotheses related to the affective components of the SWB of KTSF. Income, frequency of family communication, marital satisfaction, and the size of leisure repertoire were significantly associated with the positive affect of KTSF. The amount of leisure time and the frequency of leisure involvement were not significant. Two regression models were tested to understand the differential validity of the time and frequency of six different types of leisure activities on positive affect. The leisure time and frequency of Hobbies and Other Activities were significant, while other activity types were not. These findings were discussed in light of the existing SWB and transnationalism literature, the qualitative aspects of leisure experience, and the life circumstances of KTSF.

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This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2017S1A2A2041103).

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Correspondence to KangJae Jerry Lee.

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  1. 1.

    Home-Based Recreation

  2. 1)

    Watching TV

  3. 2)

    Readings books/magazines

  4. 3)

    Listening to music

  5. 4)

    Playing board or table games

  6. 2.

    Electronic Media

  7. 5)

    Surfing websites for leisure

  8. 6)

    Playing computer or video games

  9. 7)

    Social networking (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, tweeting)

  10. 8)


  11. 9)


  12. 3.

    Exercise-Oriented Activities

  13. 10)


  14. 11)


  15. 12)

    Body building

  16. 13)


  17. 14)


  18. 15)


  19. 16)

    Martial arts

  20. 17)


  21. 18)


  22. 19)


  23. 4.

    Outdoor Recreational Activities

  24. 20)

    Walking for pleasure

  25. 21)


  26. 22)


  27. 23)


  28. 24)


  29. 25)


  30. 26)


  31. 27)


  32. 28)

    Horseback riding/racing

  33. 29)


  34. 5.

    Team Sports

  35. 30)


  36. 31)


  37. 32)


  38. 33)


  39. 34)


  40. 35)


  41. 36)

    Table tennis

  42. 37)


  43. 38)


  44. 6.

    Hobbies and Other Activities

  45. 39)

    Socializing with family

  46. 40)

    Socializing with friends

  47. 41)

    Dining out/drinking

  48. 42)

    Going to movies

  49. 43)

    Visiting museums/art exhibitions

  50. 44)


  51. 45)


  52. 46)


  53. 47)


  54. 48)

    Going to concerts/plays/operas

  55. 49)


  56. 50)


  57. 51)


  58. 52)

    Playing musical instruments

  59. 53)


  60. 54)


  61. 55)

    Volunteer organizations/meetings

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Lee, K.J., Hwang, S. & Stodolska, M. Leisure and subjective well-being of parents of Korean transnational-split families. Curr Psychol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-00852-8

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  • Korean transnational-split family
  • Kirogi family
  • Transnationalism
  • Subjective well-being