Surveillance and Molecular Characterization of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Odisha, India after Introduction of Rotavac

Abstract

Objective

To know the rotavirus burden associated with acute gastroenteritis along with circulating genotypes among under-five children and to find out possible associations with different demographic and clinical predictors in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Methods

A prospective acute gastroenteritis surveillance conducted from February 2016 to June 2019 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Bhubaneswar has enrolled 850 children under five years of age. The stool samples were tested for VP6 antigen of rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and hemi-nested multiplex PCR to find out VP7 (G type) and VP4 (P type) genes. The data was presented using mean ± SD, median (IQR) along with frequencies and percentages.

Results

Rotavirus positivity was found in 246 children (28.9%) with male: female ratio of 3:1. An increasing trend of rotaviral diarrheal cases was seen during the winter months. History of vomiting for 2 d, age group of 12–23 mo, and fever were significantly associated with rotavirus diarrhea having odd ratios of 1.80 (95% CI, 1.48, and 1.69, respectively). Among the genotypes, G3 and P8 were found to be most common in the present study.

Conclusion

With the introduction of Rotavac in the state the overall rotaviral distribution has significantly changed. Children of 6–23 mo were the most affected age group in the study indicating the necessity of this vaccine in the early months of life.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the co-operation by all participants, parents/guardians and surveillance staff of the KIMS hospital. Their special thanks to Dr. RishabhPugalia and Dr. Mirabai Das for their help in data collection and counselling the parents. They thank the Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi; Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India and the State government of Odisha for their support. They also thank the team at Christian Medical College, Vellore for the support.

Funding

This work was supported by grants from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA (subcontract to Christian Medical College, Vellore grant no MOA#871-15SC) and the Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (grant no OPP1165083).

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VG, NKM, SRN: Study design, manuscript development; MKN, NM: Data acquisition, management and manuscript development; VG, NKM, NM, RK, SRN: Data analysis, literature review and manuscript writing; All authors approved the final manuscript. NKM will act as guarantor of the study.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nirmal Kumar Mohakud.

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Ghoshal, V., Nayak, M.K., Misra, N. et al. Surveillance and Molecular Characterization of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Odisha, India after Introduction of Rotavac. Indian J Pediatr 88, 41–46 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03622-3

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Keywords

  • Rotavirus
  • Under five
  • Vaccine
  • Diarrheal disease
  • Bhubaneswar
  • Acute gastroenteritis
  • G3P8 
  • Rotavac