Emerging Molecular Tools for Engineering Phytomicrobiome

Abstract

Microbial plant interaction plays a major role in the sustainability of plants. The understanding of phytomicrobiome interactions enables the gene-editing tools for the construction of the microbial consortia. In this interaction, microbes share several common secondary metabolites and terpenoid metabolic pathways with their host plants that ensure a direct connection between the microbiome and associated plant metabolome. In this way, the CRISPR-mediated gene-editing tool provides an attractive approach to accomplish the creation of microbial consortia. On the other hand, the genetic manipulation of the host plant with the help of CRISPR-Cas9 can facilitate the characterization and identification of the genetic determinants. It leads to the enhancement of microbial capacity for more trait improvement. Many plant characteristics like phytovolatilization, phytoextraction, phytodesalination and phytodegradation are targeted by these approaches. Alternatively, chemical communications by PGPB are accomplished by the exchange of different signal molecules. For example, quorum-sensing is the way of the cell to cell communication in bacteria that lead to the detection of metabolites produced by pathogens during adverse conditions and also helpful in devising some tactics towards understanding plant immunity. Along with quorum-sensing, different volatile organic compounds and N-acyl homoserine lactones play a significant role in cell to cell communication by microbe to plant and among the plants respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to get details of all the significant approaches that are useful in exploring cell to cell communications. In this review, we have described gene-editing tools and the cell to cell communication process by quorum-sensing based signaling. These signaling processes via CRISPR- Cas9 mediated gene editing can improve the microbe-plant community in adverse climatic conditions.

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Acknowledgements

The author, TC acknowledges MaharshiDayanand University, Rohtak, India for University Research Scholarship (URS). PS acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, Govt. of India, FIST grant (Grant No. 1196 SR/FST/LS-I/2017/4) and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India (Grant No. BT/PR27437/BCE/8/1433/2018).

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Correspondence to Pratyoosh Shukla1.

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Chaudhary, T., Gera, R. & Shukla1, P. Emerging Molecular Tools for Engineering Phytomicrobiome. Indian J Microbiol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-020-00915-1

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Keywords

  • Phytomicrobiome
  • Plant-microbe interactions
  • Quorum-sensing
  • Cell communication
  • Microbial community