Bacillus sp. strain MA04 a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar plates, and the supernatant from liquid culture in nutrient broth at 24 h exhibited emulsification activity, suggesting the production of biosurfactants. In antagonist assays, the supernatant showed antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium stilboides, Sclerotium rolfsii y Rhizoctonia solani, finding a reduction of mycelial growth of all fungi tested, ranging from 35 to 69%, this activity was increased with time of culture, accomplishing percentages of inhibition up to 85% with supernatants obtained at 72 h. Then, the crude biorsurfactant (CB) was isolated from the supernatant in order to assay its antagonistic effect on the phytopathogens previously tested, finding an increase in the inhibition up to 97% at 500 mg/L of CB. The composition of CB was determined by infrared spectroscopy, identifying various functional groups related to lipopeptides, which were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF–MS, revealing a mixture of fengycins A and B whose high antifungal activity is been widely recognized. These results show that PGPR Bacillus sp. MA04 could also contribute to plant health status through the production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity.
Hemolytic activity Emulsification index Lipopeptides Adduct Biological control
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The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support provided by “Fondo de Vinculación—Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro”, and we wish to thank both Dra. Alicia Chagolla López and Dra. Yolanda Rodríguez Aza for their invaluable support in the chromatographic and MALDITOF/TOF analysis.
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