Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant blood disease with a particular chromosomal aberration that is known as a common form of leukemia. The chromene family exhibits strong anti-cancer effects. Therefore, the effects of six members of the dihydropyrano [2,3-g] chromene family on cell toxicity and apoptosis induction in K562 cancer cells were investigated and compared with those of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The K562 cells were cultured in the presence of the aforementioned chromene derivatives at concentrations of 40 to 200 μM for 24 to 72 h. The effects of these compounds on the growth and viability of the K562 cell line and PBMCs were studied through MTT assay. Furthermore, apoptosis induction was investigated using flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was used for relative quantification of BCL2, Bax, TP53 and BCR- ABL genes after 48 h of exposing K562 cells and PBMCs to 4-Clpgc. Based on the results, these chromene derivatives inhibited the growth of K562 cells. According to the obtained data, 4-Clpgc was the strongest compound with IC50 values of 102 ± 1.6 μM and 143 ± 9.41 μM in K562 cells and PBMCs, while pgc was the weakest one with IC50 levels of 278 ± 2.7 μM and 366 ± 47 μM in K562 cells and PBMCs (after 72 h), respectively. The results demonstrated that the apoptotic cell percentage in the control group increased from 6.09% to 84.10% and 17.2% to 20.06% in K562 cells and PBMCs after 48 h of treatment, respectively. Moreover, 4-Clpgc treatment increased the expression of Bax and TP53 genes by 42.74 and 35.88 folds in K562 cells and 9.60 and 7.75 folds in PBMCs, respectively. On the other hand, the expression of BCL2 was reduced by 1.47 and 1.38 folds in K562 cells and PBMCs, respectively. These compounds were associated with less toxic effects on normal cells, compared to the cancer cells. In conclusion, these derivatives can be considered as appropriate candidates for leukemia treatment.
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The authors would like to thank faculty of chemistry university of Kashan for synthesizing materials used in project and Pasteur Institute of Iran for providing the facilities and financial support to conduct this research project.
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Asgari, F., Mahinpour, R., Moradi, L. et al. The chromene derivative 4-Clpgc inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in the K562 cell line. J. Cell Commun. Signal. 14, 77–91 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12079-019-00530-w
- Chronic myeloid leukemia
- Dihydropyrano [2,3-g] chromene